CO2 Lewis Structure

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Lewis Structure & Shape

When we were younger, our understanding of CO2 was usually associated with breathing oxygen and releasing CO2. That is true, but Carbon Dioxide is not just the colorless gas that smells. 

It is also a good starting point in learning how to fully understand the CO2 Lewis Structure and Molecular Geometry.

Understanding the CO2 Lewis Structure

You need to understand the Lewis Structure or Lewis Dot Structure of a molecule to find out how the atoms form bonds and produce the shape of the molecule. For CO2, the Best Lewis Structure is to find the charged atoms. 

The number of valence electrons of a carbon atom is four which forms four bonds. The CO2 Lewis Structure is where the central carbon atom is the central atom, the least electronegative atom with O surrounded by four dots.

The total valence electrons, including valence shells, are eight electrons pairs with no lone pair.

Understanding the CO2 Lewis Structure

Closer Look at the Structure

Closer Look at the Structure

Hybridization

CO2 has SP Hybridization. Carbon atoms have a different electronic configuration from Oxygen atoms which affects CO2’s SP hybridization. This changes when the electrons are in their excited state, where it becomes 1s2 2s1 2p3 where one electron goes to each p-orbital. 

The hybridization between 2s orbitals and one of the p-orbitals will form 2sp orbitals, which resulted in sigma bonds formation. This will form the sigma bond because of the two p-orbitals that are overlapping.

Molecular Geometry

CO2 has an AX2 molecule based on the VSEPR theory making the molecular geometry of CO2 linear. The linear molecular geometry has a symmetrical structure with bond angles of 180 degrees once it takes its linear shape. The valence shell electron pairs also cause repulsive forces hence the shape of the molecule.

Molecular Orbital (MO) Diagram

In a Molecular Orbital Diagram, the 2s orbital of oxygen is nonbonding because of the high energy difference between carbon and oxygen atoms.

Based on the rules of the Lewis Structure, all 16 electrons are filled upon bond formation, but the nonbonding orbitals remain vacant, as in the case of CO2.

Molecular Orbital (MO) Diagram

Bond Angle

CO 2 has double bonds, coming from Carbon and Oxygen. Two oxygen atoms are at the terminal ends of the bond, while the central carbon atom has an angle bond length of 180°. There are eighth electron pairs in this bond and no lone pair as shown in the Lewis Structures. 

Polarity

The CO2 molecular geometry is linear in shape, which means that the double bond has the same influence on the charge, making CO 2 a nonpolar molecule. There is no dipole moment generated between the two oxygen atoms making this not a polar molecule. Carbon Dioxide(1) has two double bonds, which contribute to its linear geometry. 

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Preparation Process

There are various processes in preparing CO 2.

1. This is where calcium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid, which is a very common method used in laboratories. 

2HCl + CaCO3 ——–> CO2 + CaCl2 + H2O

2. Mixture of methane and oxygen

CH4 + 2O2 ——-> CO2 + 2H2O

3. This process uses combustion, where carbon-based fuels are produced through thermal decomposition. Calcium Carbonate goes through the heating process and forms quicklime which is commonly used in industries. 

CaCO3 ——-> CaO + CO2

4. With the use of Carbonic Acid through decomposition. 

H2CO3 ——–> CO2 + H2O

Molar Mass

Carbon Dioxide also known as CO2 has a molar mass of 44.009 g/mol with a density of 1562 Kg/m3.

Acid or Base

CO2 or carbon dioxide is considered as acid or can even be called Lewis Acid.

The resonance structure accepts lone pairs of electrons, but the three lone pairs of electrons are in the oxygen molecule.

There are no lone pairs of electrons in CO 2. Although, when dissolved in water, CO 2 takes the form of carbonic acid using this formula. 

CO2(g)+H2O(l)⇌H2CO3(aq)

Acid or Base

6 Steps on How to Draw CO2’s Lewis Structure

Steps on How to Draw CO2’s Lewis Structure
  1. Calculate the total valence electrons found in a molecule. 
      • Carbon Valence Electron=4
      • Oxygen Valence electrons: 6*2 = 12 
      • Total number of valence electrons = 16
  1. Find the central atom, which is usually the one with the highest bonding sites, is the Carbon atom. Draw four dots around it.
  2. The remaining electrons, beginning with the electronegative atoms and then the electropositive, should complete the octet rule of the atoms. 
  3. Since an oxygen atom needs extra electrons, the carbon atoms share electrons with the oxygen atom and form a double bond. This central atom will now have a double bond with the oxygen atom. 
  4. Two parallel lines on both these atoms are an indication of the double bonds. 
  5. The last part is to make sure that the atom’s lowest possible formal charge is achieved. Below is the formula for calculating the formal charges. FC = VE – [LPE – ½(BE)]

FAQS

CO2 is a linear molecule as there are no lone pairs since there are four electrons bonded. Two double bonds are trying to get as far apart as they can. These are atoms that have a formal charge, but not all the atoms have an octet configuration.

The VSEPR shape of CO2 is Tetrahedral since multiple bonds, either a double or triple bond, take one electron from the final total. The same atoms are recognized by VSEPR, which can be seen in the Lewis Structure.

CO 2 has two electron domains that consist of bonding pairs. One carbon atom is the center atom, while the Oxygen atom has two lone pairs each. The valence electrons on each carbon atom are four which are double bonding with the oxygen atoms.

Key Takeaways

Carbon Dioxide or CO 2 is not only a contributing factor to greenhouse gas in Earth’s atmosphere because there are many uses for this trace gas. Understanding the individual atoms and CO2 Lewis Structure will give you a better grasp of its purpose. 

The CO2 Lewis Structure can be confusing initially, but if you can find out the valence electrons of both carbon atom and the oxygen atoms, the Lewis Structure, its electron density, and molar mass will no longer be a confusing aspect for you.

Reference:

  1. https://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/carbon-dioxide/
Lewis Structure of SO2

Sulfur Dioxide Lewis Structure, Shape & Molecular Geometry

Understanding the Lewis Structure of a compound element is necessary to understand how the molecule and the atoms came up with its shape, geometry and how it emerged into such. You will better understand the origins of SO2 from Oxygen atoms and Sulfur and its uses if you can know its source.

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2): A Brief Description

Sulfur dioxide, or Sulphur Dioxide as spelled in Commonwealth English, is a toxic chemical compound that causes the smell of burning matches.

Normally, this originates from volcanic activities or produces as by-products to extract copper and incinerating fossil fuels that are sulfur-bearing. 

This is a colorless inorganic gas but has a weak acid solution when mixed with water.

Sulfuric acid is a toxic gas that can cause respiratory health problems.

Sulfur-Dioxide

What You Need To Know

What You Need To Know

Lewis Structure 

Drawing Lewis Structure of SO2 or Sulfur Dioxide will first require you to get the total valence electrons on both Sulfur and Oxygen. Once that is done, all should be arranged on the outermost shell of Sulphur. There are six valence electrons for the two, Sulfur and Oxygen, and based on the Octet Rule, if there are lone pairs or nonbonding electrons, it can lose or gain and share atoms until it is finally complete. 

Hybridization 

With Sulfur Dioxide, Oxygen atoms contain one sigma bond and two lone pairs the same as Sulfur atoms. Therefore the hybridization of SO2 is SP2. You will clearly see the transformation and explanation after you draw the skeleton structure of the molecule where the sulfur atom and oxygen atoms create a double bond.

Molecular Geometry

To understand Molecular Geometry better, understand the positions and number of electrons distributed among Sulfur and Oxygen.

A sulfur atom on the outer level has six electrons, and four are used by Oxygen for each bond.

That leaves a total number of ten electrons in five pairs.

One lone pair is left while two double bonds form as a unit, making the Bent or V shape.

Molecular Geometry

Molar Mass

You can calculate the molar mass by using the usual formula n=N/NA (then N=n*NA). N is the number of atoms, while A stands for Avogadro’s constant, which is 6,023×10^23. This will give us the result of 64.066 g/mol as the molar mass of SO2. 

Electron Geometry

The electron geometry of SO2 is trigonal planar. This is not similar to molecular geometry, where only the total number of atoms is considered to determine its shape. Electron geometry includes all the pairs of electrons, even the lone pairs. With SO2, the pairs of bonding electrons are arranged at an angle of 120 degrees.

Polarity

There is an imbalance charge across other atoms in the molecule, making Sulfur Dioxide polar. There is polarization because Sulfur pulls the charge of the molecule to its side while gaining partial negative charge and not Oxygen since it is the least electronegative atom, making SO2 a polar molecule.

Bond Angle

Looking at the molecular geometry of SO2, the bond angle is at 120°. This means that the o-orbitals are also almost perfect SP2 orbitals. Although this may be confusing since there are different bonds, a double bond and a single bond is present, including triple bonds of the molecule, it still comes up with the same bond angles on all.

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5 Step By Step Construction of SO2's Lewis Structure

5 Step By Step Construction of SO2's Lewis Structure

1. Find The Total Valence Shells’ Electrons

The two molecules found on this compound belong to the VIA elements; therefore, they have six valence electrons, multiply it with the number of atoms found on each molecule and then add the products.

  • Valence electrons from two oxygen atoms = 6 * 2 = 12
  • Valence electrons from one sulfur atom = 6 * 1 = 6
  • Total valence electrons = 12 + 6 = 18

2. Determine The Total Electrons Pairs

Once you find the number of electron pairs, you divide the total valence electrons by two. You have six 

SO2 total electron pairs /2= 12/2= 9 

3. Center Atom Selection

In finding which should be the center atom, the one with the highest valence will be considered. For SO2, Sulfur has the higher valence among the two atoms. You will see the bond order, single bonds form, and double.

4. Mark Lone Pairs On Atoms

In the S-O bond, you will see that there are two of them.

In marking a lone pair, determine how many are left.

Begin with the valence electrons on the outside of the oxygen atom, which should show two bonds.

There will be six valence electron pairs from Oxygen atoms which will leave one valence electron pair left.

That will be marked as a lone pair under the Sulfur atom.

Mark Lone Pairs On Atoms

5. Check The Stability And Minimize Charges On Atoms

In order to find out what the most stable structure is, the charges of the atoms should be established in their lowest form possible. Since the lone pair is already marked and those bonded, it will be easier to mark the charges of each atom. It will use this formula:

Formal Charge = No. of valence electrons – No. of Bonds – 2 X (No. of lone pairs) = 6-2-(2×2) = 0

Other Similar Lewis Structures of So2

Other Similar Lewis Structures of So2

There are many similar Lewis Structures of SO2 depending on the shape, geometry, and lone pairs. The SO2 Lewis Structure of water, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone has the same shape, which is bent. Hydrogen sulfide, water, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide have two sigma bonds. Lastly, Ozone and SO2 have one lone pair on their central atom.

Sulfur Dioxide’s Effect on Humans

This is a useful chemical, but it has harmful and toxic effects on a human being. Sulfur Dioxide has a negative reaction when inhaled. The respiratory tract has high infection possibilities, resulting in coughing and secretion of mucus, leading to serious cases of chronic bronchitis or asthma.

FAQS

The best Lewis Structure would be where the two oxygen atoms have double bonds to make their formal charges zero and the formal charge of Sulfur.

The electron geometry of Sulfur Dioxide is a trigonal planar shape where the bond angle of the three pairs of electrons is lined at 120 degrees.

Final Thoughts

Like other compounds, understanding and drawing the Lewis Structure will help you fully grasp how the molecular geometry, properties, and other components came to be. With SO2 Lewis Structure, the central atom is the central sulfur atom because of the higher valence of the sulfur atom than the oxygen atom. 

The SO2 Lewis Structure provides the best explanation of how the sulfuric acid(1) transformed into such after dissecting the bonds of Sulfur and Oxygen. This can be a hazard to one’s health, but this is also a useful compound if you know how to use it properly.

References:

  1. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Sulfuric-acid
Best Molecular Gastronomy Kit

What’s the Best Molecular Gastronomy Kit? Reviews & Buying Guide

Science is not just inside the laboratory as you can also do your concoction in the kitchen. Learning how to whip up some ingredients from a science kit can be a very fun and exciting thing to do. 

So, we gathered the best molecular gastronomy kits we can find to help you get started with your experiment in the kitchen.

OUR #1 RATED

Molecule-R - Molecular Gastronomy Starter Kit

Editor's Choice

OUR #2 RATED

Spherification Kit [Molecular Gastronomy]

OUR #3 RATED

Reverse Spherification Kit

Top 7 Molecular Gastronomy Kits

1. Molecule-R - Molecular Gastronomy Starter Kit

This kit has specialized molecular tools that will allow the user to do molecular gastronomy techniques that can help them create spectacular dishes.

Second is the 50-recipe DVD that provides step-by-step instructions so you can do all the spheres and reproduce foams similar to what Michelin-starred restaurants use. 

Friends and family will enjoy your balsamic vinegar pearls as you turn them into caviars using one reusable syringe included in the Molecular R kit.

The Molecule Cuisine R Evolution kit makes molecular gastronomy easy.

Editor's Choice

PROS

CONS

2. Spherification Kit [Molecular Gastronomy]

This is a good choice for those who want to turn their kitchen into a room for artistic culinary composition.

You can be the next master molecular gastronomy expert with this gastronomy starter kit.

The molecular cooking kit also includes a 60cc syringe, 50g Sodium Alginate, 50g Sodium Citrate, and 50g Calcium Chloride.

PROS

CONS

3. Reverse Spherification Kit

You can start experimenting in your own kitchen with this reverse frozen spherification kit.

This is perfect for beginners who have a passion for creating spherified liquids and other flavorful recipes. This molecular gastronomy starter kit includes an easy-to-follow video course for the user to understand what spherification (1) is. 

Following the instructions would be easy, plus it also has molecular techniques you can use while you use the tools included in the basic kit, like the reverse spherification mold and gelatin sheets to create those flavored pearls.

PROS

CONS

4. Modernist Cuisine Spherification Kit

You will appreciate the step-by-step instructions provided by Modernist Cuisine Spherification Kit in their hardcover books.

It includes photos plus an explanation of what science occurred during the spherification.

This kit can perfectly perfect the modernist cuisine even with children aged eight years old and above.

The DIY kits include the recipe booklet, gelatin sheets, immersion blender, spherification spoon, and a digital gram scale which are usually not a part of the kit.

PROS

CONS

5. PREMIUM Molecular Gastronomy Starter Kit

All the tools you need and free technical support assistance would be the first thing that would capture your attention if you check this molecular gastronomy kit.

This would be great for starters since the 250-guide book provides thorough instructions on molecular gastronomy techniques and recipes. 

This is a complete kit with a measuring spoon, silicon mold weighing dishes, and slotted spoon with ingredients such as 50g Sodium Alginate and 50g Calcium Lactate.

Your gluten-free mint caviar beads will impress your family and friends with the help of your Perfect Caviar Maker.

PROS

CONS

6. Molecular Gastronomy "Made Easy" Starter Kit

These can also be the best molecular gastronomy kits since they ensure complete content and a comprehensive guide.

Food lovers will enjoy this kit as they learn new recipes and gather detailed techniques that you can see used in cooking shows.

You can start using your gel noodle kit and serve delightful chocolate gel spaghetti and impress dinner guests in no time.

PROS

CONS

7. OFFICIAL Modernist Cuisine Value Pack

A typical modernist cuisine would include soft caviar pearls, which you can learn with this Modernist Cuisine Spherification Kit.

You can transform your kitchen into a modernist pantry by creating caviar from your caviar maker and stainless steel caviar strainer, which is included in the kit.

You will learn modernist cooking in no time with the modernist cuisine molecular gastronomy kit.

PROS

CONS

Your Guide to Buying

buying guide

Pricing

The usual concern of the buyers is the price since they can obviously buy the ingredients individually. Find a Molecular Gastronomy Starter Kit that includes ingredients that you can use along with the tools to make sure you are getting your money’s worth.

Easy to Follow 

A molecular gastronomy kit is usually intended for kids. That is why the instructions should be straightforward since this will also mold their weighing skills and comprehension.

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Fun Activities

Simple cooking techniques and a recipe guide that everyone can follow will give the users a fun experience. This is a good bonding experience for families during free time, making it even better to include many recipes in the instruction booklet. 

Extra Tools

Other kits do not provide any tools other than the usual ones that are used, such as a syringe, silicone mold, a gel noodle kit, and one slotted spoon. A weighing scale is important to have the right measurement done.

FAQS

Yes, molecular gastronomy kits are reliable, but if kids use them, adult supervision is still necessary to avoid unnecessary accidents. Some ingredients are not supposed to be handled by children. Thus, they are not included in the kit.

Yes, a molecular gastronomy kit is safe because ingredients that may cause harm are not included in the molecular gastronomy kit to avoid accidents. There is an instruction booklet and online tutorials provided to ensure that the steps are done correctly.

And the #1 Molecular Gastronomy Kit is...

Our best molecular gastronomy kit is Molecule R – Molecular Gastronomy Starter Kit. This is the perfect gift for a foodie friend or your child interested in molecular gastronomy. The cooking technique provided in their guide, like the chocolate spaghetti and the tasty lemon foam, is very easy to follow, including how to transform liquids.

Also, Molecule R chose ingredients that can be easily obtained, like soy lecithin and calcium lactate, should the user run out of it. Molecular gastronomy is an interesting activity that should be learned properly, and having this kit will surely provide that result.

Editor's Choice

OUR # 1 Recommendation

Molecule-R - Molecular Gastronomy Starter Kit

Best Microscope For Pathologist

What’s the Best Microscope For Pathologists? Ranked & Compared

The work of a pathologist is full of complex responsibilities, especially that this is in line with diagnostics and treatment of a patient. A reliable microscope that can measure correctly and view all categories with no confusion is necessary. 

We searched for compound microscopes with the best features to help you pick out the one that better suits your requirements. Here’s our list of the best microscopes for pathologists. 

OUR #1 RATED

OMAX LED Binocular Compound Lab Microscope

Editor's Choice

OUR #2 RATED

AmScope B120C Siedentopf Binocular Compound Microscope

OUR #3 RATED

Swift SW380T Compound Lab Microscope

Top 5 Microscopes for Pathologist

1. OMAX LED Binocular Compound Lab Microscope

First of all, the magnification levels provided by this compound microscope are exceptional considering its price.

These are not high-end digital microscopes, but magnifications up to 40x, 80x, 100x, 200x, 800x, 1000x, and 2000x are very clear to the naked eye. 

It has a revolving quadruple nosepiece which can help any user to adjust the size of the specimen. It also featured LED illumination, which enhances the images on the slide.

Editor's Choice

PROS

CONS

2. AmScope B120C Siedentopf Binocular Compound Microscope

AmScope is one of the best microscopes in the market today.

It has an achromatic objective lens which gives the magnified images up to five corrections.

It also has LED light, 1.25 NA Abbe condenser, and iris diaphragm to allow users detailed examination and light management to scrutinize microorganisms thoroughly under the microscopes. 

Slides are locked in place, and the double-layer mechanical stage allows the slide to be moved along the X- and Y-axis.

PROS

CONS

3. Swift SW380T Compound Lab Microscope

This is one of the multi-purpose compound microscopes that enables users to check tiny specimens.

This microscope is perfect for hobbyists, doctors, pathologists, and even students who do research.

Laboratories can also use the advanced features of this microscope. 

You can observe cells tissues even in different interpupillary distances without losing focus since it can be easily adjusted.

This microscope will allow you to understand your subject easily because of its distinct features.

PROS

CONS

4. Amazon Basics Siedentopf Binocular Compound Microscope

This is actually an impressive compound microscope (1) coming from Amazon, having a mechanical stage and digital camera capability.

These could be the best microscopes in the market because of their many features.

Magnification can go up to 2000, and you can check on cells and specimens up close on this microscope. 

This is suitable for pathologists, students studying pathology, or any medical field. You can consider this a professional microscope that can be used during surgery or by examining body fluids.

PROS

CONS

5. Gemkolabwell Binocular Microscope

All the tools you need and free technical support assistance would be the first thing that would capture your attention if you check this molecular gastronomy kit.

This would be great for starters since the 250-guide book provides thorough instructions on molecular gastronomy techniques and recipes. 

This is a complete kit with a measuring spoon, silicon mold weighing dishes, and slotted spoon with ingredients such as 50g Sodium Alginate and 50g Calcium Lactate.

Your gluten-free mint caviar beads will impress your family and friends with the help of your Perfect Caviar Maker.

PROS

CONS

Your Guide to Buying

buying guide

Pricing

The pricing of these compound microscopes depends on their features and capabilities. The higher the capacity of the microscope, the more costly it becomes. Another factor that affects the price is the materials used to increase magnification and review specimens accordingly. 

Magnification Range & Resolution

The lenses of the microscope and the condenser are the biggest factors that provide the best images that a user can see. Higher quality parts allow pathologists to screen and detect whatever issue on the sample that he is looking at. 

Durability & Warranty

Eyepieces made of quality and advanced materials will last longer than a cheaply-made compound microscope with erroneous measurement. Manufacturers who make sure they provide a reliable microscope to their buyers secure it with a warranty that covers defects that are part of their manufacturing. 

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Fine Focusing Control

A microscope is created to have better viewing of a specimen that is not visible to plain sight. Organs that need to be checked, tissue, and cells that may have a disease are scrutinized under a microscope. Focusing on these is necessary to gather data on different categories. These parts have software that is upgradable which should be something you can search for. 

Light Source & Control

The light in a microscope is crucial to its purpose. The specimen you are looking at specimen slides will only be viewable if the LED illumination has enough luminance. A compound microscope should have features that allow the user to observe the viewing head with clarity.

FAQS

Pathologists use a compound microscope to observe their magnified objectives. This is the best type of microscope because it has two lenses: the ocular, which is the one closest to the eye, and the objective lens, which is near the object.

Yes, but it’s not something we recommend. A regular microscope has limitations on what it can feature, and the demands of the responsibility of a pathologist are not simple. They need a scope that has precise measurements and features objective lenses with filters and good focus manageability.

And the Best Microscope For Pathologists Is...

Our number one choice is OMAX LED Binocular Compound Lab Microscope. The achromatic objective lenses and the mechanical stage, which is very functional, made us decide that this product has the best features. This microscope can be used in school, figuring out a disease, checking the tissues of patients, and all other objectives. 

The LED light has the right luminous to show a clear picture with a condenser, enhancing what you see on the monitor. The microscope also features camera compatibility. All these are found on the compound microscope, which is very easy to use.

Editor's Choice

OUR # 1 Recommendation

OMAX LED Binocular Compound Lab Microscope

I3 Lewis Structure

What’s the Lewis Structure of Triiodide Ion?

Three iodine atoms in a polyhalogen ion, anion, formed when the Aquarius solutions iodine and iodide salt are combined. 

To find out what the structure of a Triodide ion is, we need to get the full concept of its physical properties, shape, and hybridization. Let’s get the valence electrons and the central atom to start it off when dissecting the I3 Lewis Structure.

Triiodide Ion (I3): A Brief Description

There are three iodine molecules, hence the name Triiodide (1) or better known as I3- which is also a polyatomic ion and a negatively charged ion of -1. The given molecule has a non-reactive property towards starch which makes it useful in identification due to the identifiable blue-black color it produces. 

It also has a molecular weight of 380.7134. There are seven valence electrons found in this ion which has an exergonic balance that leads to the formation of the ions. There is a positive flow of energy on the charged molecule from the system to the environment.

Triiodide Ion

What You Need To Know

What You Need To Know

Lewis Structure 

The Lewis Structure of I3- will give you a better understanding of how the chemical bonding is completed. One of the three iodine molecules has an extra negative charge among all the atoms. Because of that, considered an extra electron, we have 3 lone pairs and 2 bond pairs that result in its steric number 5 and is number 53 on the periodic table. Also, the formal charges of the molecules should be at their lowest value.

Hybridization 

To find out what the hybridization of I3- is, we need to use the simple formula in finding hybridization number, which is;

Number of valence electron + monovalent + (negative charge) – (positive charge)/2

In an iodine molecule, you will find seven valence electrons. There are two monovalent atoms, and the value of the net negative charge will be 1 since it has a negative charge. 

The value should be:

7+1+2/2

=10/2

=5

Since the hybridization number is 5, it makes the SP hybridization sp3d.

Molecular Geometry

Looking at the Lewis Structure of I3-, the central iodine shows 3 lone pairs with equatorial positions because of the repulsion of the valence electrons. Now, the angle of the bond became 1800 when the two iodine atoms were axially placed. The central iodide atom has a negative charge. Therefore, it makes the shape of the I3- ion symmetrical and linear. 

Molar Mass

You can calculate the mass of the molecules depending on the weight of the element. In this case, the atomic weight of iodine is 126.90447, and there are 3 atoms found in this molecule. Therefore, the molar mass of i3- is 380.713410.

Electron Geometry

One atom of the three is negatively charged, and this also gives two bond pairs and 3 lone pairs of valence electrons, making the molecular geometry linear. 

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Polarity

All the values of the I3 ion are negative as it only has one electron. If a molecule has a partially positively charged end and a partially negatively charged end, then it will have polar bonds, but this is not the case for I3-, therefore, it is not polar or nonpolar. 

Bond Angle

The bond angle of I3- was formed when the two other iodine molecules bonded with I- ion. The value of this is 180 degrees celsius. Since the three molecules have seven electrons that are non-bonding, the other two iodine atoms formed the bond instead. 

Shape

The shape of I3- ion is linear and also symmetrical. The iodine molecules bonded axially in a linear fashion. There are two atoms sharing valence electrons out of three lone pairs in this molecule, and based on the VSEPR theory, I3- has three equatorial lone pairs which have also bonded to the central iodine atom.

How to Draw the Lewis Structure for I3

How to Draw the Lewis Structure for I3

When drawing Lewis Structures, we first count the valence electrons with the use of the periodic table. In the periodic table, iodine is the seventh group with the atomic number 53, and it has seven electron valence.

In this Lewis Structure, you will see three molecules with an extra electron that has a negative charge; therefore, the computation will be: 7×3+1=22 

We must follow the Octet rule, so it will be the Central Atom sharing electrons to neighbouring Iodine atoms from its eight electrons in its outermost shell, leaving six electrons that will form the non-bonding lone pairs.

The last thing to make sure is that all molecules maintain the lowest possible formal charge.

FAQS

I3- is not bent because it is in a different electronic environment. It is bound to two oxygen valence electrons that cause repulsion on the outer shell since it pulls electrons on the outer orbit.

No. I3- Lewis Structures shows that this only has one negatively charged electron, and even the best Lewis structure will not show any dipole moment. I3- is not a polar molecule or a nonpolar molecule.

Key Takeaways

The I3 Lewis Structure, just like any Lewis Structures, will provide enlightenment on how to understand the structure of a molecule better. The seven valence electrons of iodine created the Triiodide ion, though this is a confusing process of chemical bonding, especially for beginners. 

We now know how to deal with transforming non-bonding molecules and always ensure that a molecule’s formal charge is kept at the lowest form. All these will be taken into consideration since we have a better understanding of how the structure works.

References:

  1. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Triiodide-Ion
BCL3 Polar or NonPolar

Is Boron Trichloride Polar or Non-polar?

Is the inorganic compound BCl3 polar or nonpolar? If shapes are the basis of polarity, then BCl3 is a polar molecule. But if you base it on BCL3’s electronegativity, then it is nonpolar.

Which answer is correct?

Let us see the shape, geometry, and all other factors about Boron Trichloride to determine its polarity or non-polarity.

Polarity or Nonpolarity of Boron Trichloride

The structure of Boron Trichloride is Trigonal Planar which forms a T and is symmetrically arranged, revealing its non-polarity.

This centrally located boron has valence electrons, responsible for balancing the three chlorines causing it to be a part of a perfectly balanced trigonal pyramidal shape (1).

The contradiction is with the B-Cl bond, which shows polarity mainly because of the electronegativity difference of Boron 2.04) and Chlorine(3.16), and all three such bonds lie at 120 degrees to each other.

BCl3​ is a planar molecular compound in which the three B – Cl molecular bonds are inclined at a bond angle of 120 degrees.

Molecular Geometry & Bond Angle

The chlorine halides are spaced symmetrically around the central boron atom. The three chlorine atoms have a negative charge, and the central atom boron in the center has a positive charge. 

Though BCl3 does not fully complete its octet, based on the ruling of Lewis Structure, even with lone pairs, it can still come up with a nonpolar molecule. It has three chlorides bonded and no lone pair making the molecular geometry trigonal planar.

Since we have the same pull in these organic compounds and no electrical dipole formed, there is no dipole moment. An important factor in helping determine a compound’s nature is its symmetrical geometry, such as carbon disulfide (CS2).

Factors That Determine Polarity

Factors That Determine Polarity

Shape

The shape after the same amount of molecules attached will become the basis, whether this is nonpolar or not. If the arrows have the same length and have a symmetrical structure, then this is nonpolar. The bond angle seen at the lewis structure will help determine the shape. 

Electronegativity

Electronegativity is a measure of the capability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons. Electronegativity is a periodic property affecting valence electrons. The charge distribution of different atoms attached will determine the polarity or non-polarity of the molecule.

Dipole Moment

There is a separation of positive and negative charges because of the unequal attraction for the bonded valence electrons. B, boron in the periodic table, and Cl have different values in terms of electronegativities. 

Hence chlorine (E.N. = 3.00) is more electronegative than the Boron (E.N. = 2.00).

As a result, the B–Cl bond forms polar bonds and carries a finite zero dipole moment.

Related Posts:

If BCl3 is a Non-polar Molecule, Why Does It Form Polar Bonds?

While it is true that BCl3 is non-polar, it forms bonds because the B-Cl bond itself is not non-polar, caused by the difference in electronegativity of Boron(2.04) and Chlorine(3.16).

All three valence electrons, B-Cl bonds that are at a distance of 120 degrees from each other, the chemical bond still cancels out, making the net dipole moment zero.

Why Does BCl3 Have Covalent Bonds?

Why does BCl3 have covalent bonds?

Boron trichloride or BCl3 is a combination of two atoms boron and chlorine. B atoms and Cl atoms are both nonmetals making them covalent compounds.

As B electrons in BCl3 undergo sp2 hybridization, the resultant shape is trigonal planar. B and Cl form polar covalent bonds, but three other covalent bonds have the same bond moments. Thus the sum of three valence electrons comes out to be zero dipole moment in a single bond.

FAQS

Boron Trichloride is a reactive gas that can serve as rocket fuel as it produces hydrogen chloride. This is not an ordinary boron atom turned chemical compound because once it is on hydrolysis with water and other alcohols, this can form hydrogen chloride.

The material used to produce elemental boron comes from bonded atoms of BCl3. Fumes from the chemical compound BCl3 can easily irritate the eyes, along with the mucous membranes. It is corrosive to metals, tissues, and considered toxic in nature.

Another use for this colorless gas is a soldering flux for aluminum, tungsten, iron, zinc, and monel metal.

Based on the Lewis theory of Acid and base, acids are chemicals accepting pairs of electrons.

Because of the electron-deficient boron, the central atom of BCl3 allowed the molecule to accept an extra pair of electrons and, hence, acts as a Lewis Acid. At room temperature, this is a colorless gas that forms fumes and has a pungent odor. Its melting point is −107.3 °C or −161.1 °F, and the boiling point of boric acid is around 12.6 °C or 54.7 °F. This is soluble in compounds like CCl4, ethanol.

So, Is BCl3 Polar or Nonpolar?

BCl3 is a nonpolar molecule. To have a polar bond, it needs to have an asymmetrical shapeshift in electron density to form an electrical dipole, but this is not the case for BCl3. 

BCl3 is a chemical compound with an SP2 hybridization type. In BCl3, Boron as a central atom consists of three bonded chlorine atoms with no lone pair of electrons left. Also, symmetrical molecular geometry is an important factor in determining the nonpolar nature of a compound. 

The electronegativity difference also contributed to the non-polarity of BCl3.

So, is BCl3 polar or nonpolar? A science enthusiast would say, yes, it is.

Reference:

  1. http://www.csun.edu/~hcchm001/shapes-polarity.pdf
Best Lab Goggles

What’s the Best Lab Goggles Today? Reviews & Guide

Whether you’re inside the lab, at the construction site, or doing DIY projects, we recommend using lab goggles to safeguard your eyes from unwanted elements like dust, debris, or fog. 

To help you find the best lab goggles available in the market, we gathered the top brands and their features. 

OUR #1 RATED

NoCry Safety Glasses

Editor's Choice

OUR #2 RATED

DEWALT DPG82-11C Concealer

OUR #3 RATED

NoCry Safety Glasses That Fit Over Your Prescription Eyewear

Top 7 Goggles for Labs

1. NoCry Safety Glasses

The NoCry Safety Glasses are one of the safety glasses that we think really works.

The design of this product is protective eyewear which can be used as lab goggles or as a piece of safety equipment.

It has polycarbonate wraparound construction making it really durable. 

It has anti-fog features, and it has a very good fit regardless of the size of the head of the wearer. What also made us believe that this is the best lab goggles is its reasonable price. These are good-quality anti-fog goggles at an affordable price.

Editor's Choice

PROS

CONS

2. DEWALT DPG82-11C Concealer

These anti-fog safety glasses are one of the trusted anti-fog safety goggles.

It has an anti-fog coating and polycarbonate lens, making it great protective glasses with a clear lens. 

It can protect your eyes from fog because of its anti-fog feature and safeguard you from chemical splashes.

It also has a dual-injected rubber design that gives a perfect fit to whatever head size, along with its adjustable elastic strap. It can give protection against dust particles or chemical splash.

PROS

CONS

3. NoCry Safety Glasses That Fit Over Your Prescription Eyewear

The dilemma of people wearing prescription eyewear who works in a lab or construction is resolved by this product.

You can wear these safety goggles over prescription glasses. This is the best lab safety goggles since it works with most prescription eyewear. 

There is no need to worry about working without clear sight during dental work or construction. These goggles also have anti-fog features. To avoid optical distortion, you simply have to leave a good gap between the safety goggle and the prescription lenses.

PROS

CONS

4. NEIKO PRO 53875B Anti-Fog Safety Goggles

These particular anti-fog safety goggles are one of the popular choices because of their durability.

It is made of a polycarbonate(1) lens that is impact-resistant and has anti-scratch coatings.

This transparent lens provides clear vision while doing DIY projects or for those working in constructions or laboratories.

The only way to protect yourself and avoid eye injuries is to put on anti-impact goggles such as this.

PROS

CONS

5. UVEX by Honeywell Stealth OTG Safety Goggles

Most of the users of these protective safety glasses are pleased with the type of eye protection it provides.

The goggles have a wraparound design that makes them really safe from flying debris and other airborne particles.

It has gap-free fit goggles that make it anti-splash from air droplets and fog-resistant.

It also has an over-the-glass design, giving the user a clearer vision even if they put it over their eye gear.

PROS

CONS

6. Tarvol - Protective Safety Glasses

Wearing protective goggles or lab goggles is an essential part of keeping yourself safe.

This product from Tarvol has a sturdy plastic material that is heavy-duty and shatter-resistant, which makes it great with construction setups and cleaning environments.

These lab goggles fit the head size well since there is an adjustable strap.

PROS

CONS

7. TR Industrial - Anti-Fog Approved Wide-Vision

The design of these safety glasses fits lab threats perfectly as these have vents that prevent liquid from getting inside the lab goggles.

Chemical reactions and spills are not much of a scare as this can protect your eyes pretty well.

Wearing lab goggles is also needed during DIY activities for your eye protection against debris and dust.

PROS

CONS

Your Guide to Buying

buying guide

Lens Quality

Polarized lenses on lab goggles are the best choices because they give clear vision and anti-glare. Suppose you choose something to put over your contact lenses, the more that you need a clear view. You should also search for lenses that work against UV light as our eyes need UV protection, especially if working outdoors. 

Broad Angle Vision

Safety glasses and lab goggles should also provide a broad angle vision and are not limited to what you see in front of you. A chemistry lab has many hazardous materials that you shouldn’t miss to avoid placing yourself in danger. 

Lightweight

These lab goggles provide protection, but they do not have to be an intrusion into your view. Its weight will be too much of a hassle if it is uncomfortable sitting on your nose bridge. 

Related Posts:

Comfort & Fit

Not all people have the same head sizes, but some manufacturers are making sure that they provide a comfortable elastic strap on their lab goggles to make it snuggly fit in your face. If the fit is not good, harmful substances may enter your eyes which will cause huge problems. 

Heavy-Duty

Good standard lab goggles should be durable and made of high-standard materials. It should pass thorough research to ensure that its design is built impact resistant to protect the wearer apart from fog clogging. 

Cost 

In most situations, safety lab goggles of high quality are attached to a high price tag. That follows because of the cost of its manufacture. However, some products are reasonably priced but still provide safety.

FAQS

Yes, you can wear glasses under lab goggles if these are designed to be worn over them. It may compromise the fit, and its purpose of protecting the user may not be effective anymore if it is loose.

You can only remove your goggles in the lab when you are ready to leave the room. Wearing goggles inside a chemistry lab is the first on the list of safety standards that should be followed to protect yourself from accidents.

And the #1 Goggle For Laboratory Use Is...

After testing them out, we think the best lab goggles are the NoCry Safety Glasses. These safety goggles are the best lab goggles because the manufacturers made sure that they use quality, clear lens that is also anti-scratch to ensure lab safety. These lab safety goggles also have a reasonable price. 

We find it really important for a product to be consistent with its features, providing what they are promising to their customers. Apart from that, there is a warranty on their products, which may have limitations but are reasonable, making us decide that this is fit for the top spot.

Editor's Choice

OUR # 1 Recommendation

NoCry Safety Glasses

Best Periodic Table Poster

What’s the Best Periodic Table of Elements Poster? Reviews & Guide

So you think every periodic table poster is the same? Hmm, not really. The content may have similarities, but we are more than definite that there is one that excels. After all, an ideal periodic table of elements poster should include updated information. 

We came up with the best posters available in the market today to give you the chance to learn and enjoy science at the same time.

OUR #1 RATED

Palace Learning Store Periodic Table of Elements

Editor's Choice

OUR #2 RATED

2021 The Periodic Table of Elements Vinyl Poster

OUR #3 RATED

Painless Learning Periodic Table Placemat

Top 10 Periodic Table Posters

1. Palace Learning Store Periodic Table of Elements

“Not just the color but the durability.” The manufacturer should be using this tagline. 

The periodic table poster contains all the chemical elements and all the necessary information.

The poster went through a 3 Mil lamination, which protects it from rips and stains. 

Kids are bound to tear papers, but as we mentioned, durability!

This poster is 18″ x 24″ and can be hung with or without a frame.

One part of it that we like is the images representing each element and how these are in real life.

Editor's Choice

PROS

CONS

2. 2021 The Periodic Table of Elements Vinyl Poster

Bigtime Signs 2020 Black Periodic Table of Elements is probably the most extensive periodic table of elements we ever saw. 

These posters are best at school as a guide for teachers because of their bigtime signs. 

The material used is vinyl which makes it more durable.

The table is also ready for hanging since there are four holes on all corners to make it easy to hang or display on your child’s room wall once you take it out of the box.

It is updated with all the 118 elements in black background that make the elements visible.

PROS

CONS

3. Painless Learning Periodic Table Placemat

Like what the brand says, it will be painless learning if you use this periodic table poster. 

It contains all elements, atomic weights, valence configuration, crystal structure, electron configuration, and many more.

This periodic table of elements is made of polyester, making it a good placemat, while the answers to their questions are visible.

Not that tearable, and kids will have fun using these posters. 

These posters can be on the wall or the table with the dimensions of 17.5 x 0.03 x 12 inches.

PROS

CONS

4. Graphic Education Periodic Table of Elements Vinyl Poster

This periodic table poster from Graphic Education Is one of the preferred visual materials by students and teachers. 

The data included on this periodic table includes element name and symbol, atomic number, type color-coded, state, IUPAC and traditional group names, and electronegativity values. 

This is waterproof, UV resistant, and offers consistent visibility against any light source.

It is worth the money you spend since it is durable and made of plastic(1) vinyl.

PROS

CONS

5. Periodic Table Science Poster

Young N Refined created simple yet handy periodic table posters. 

The periodic table of elements is great for tutors, parents, and students to learn about elements and everything else about science. 

Teachers can also use the chart as a resource during discussions.

All the elements are color-coded according to the general type of substance that element falls under, and this is classified into ten groups.

This is made of plastic, and the illustrations are in vibrant colors. This is also tear-resistant as this is a 3 Mil laminated poster.

PROS

CONS

6. Motivation Without Borders Periodic Table

This periodic table is another interesting product. It is two-sided and shows two different levels of information on each of the elements. 

One side has bright colors and has pictures to represent each one which is best for kids.

On the other hand, it has a more detailed insight into the elements with a descriptive paragraph or word form, while the opposite side has explanations.

It is designed with vibrant colors and in bigtime signs as well. 

The poster is high-quality materials, printed on thick, high quality, durable poster board, and protected with a heavy-duty finish.

PROS

CONS

7. Laminated Illustrated Periodic Table of the Elements

What makes this periodic table of elements interesting is the design on a black space-like background. 

Not the usual wherein the manufacturers are using the white color.

The illustrations are of high quality and show the element, including the scientist who discovered or made the element.

It features all 118 currently discovered elements as well as different diagrams and charts. 

This is also well laminated to ensure that it lasts long. 

The representation of a product is essential so that the student’s focus will be on what the teacher points at and get an answer over the course of time.

PROS

CONS

8. Chalkboard Periodic Table of Elements

The unique design is not the usual design you see on a periodic table poster.

Instead of the usual lively colors and pictures that catch the eyes, this is more similar to a chalkboard.

One benefit of this design is the organized look. It does not appear cluttered and too crowded because of the pictures, words, and colors.

The background is in old black finish, and the bright white ink is used for the elements to represent resolute learning.

The size of this life chem periodic table is 54″ x 36″; therefore, you can be sure you will see the information you are looking for

PROS

CONS

9. Spitegru Laminated Periodic Table of Elements Science Poster

This periodic table of elements is one of the eye-catching products available in the market. 

It features smart designs that use every part of the poster to show all necessary periodic table information. 

Kids will have a good time learning all about elements, their use in the real world, and how these existed.

A child will enjoy learning about symbols, names, atomic weight and number, properties, state, human body, real-world iconic entity, and its use.

PROS

CONS

10. Periodic Table (Usborne Book and Jigsaw)

This is different compared to the rest of the periodic table in the list. Instead of the poster form, this is a puzzle. 

It is made up of a 300 piece jigsaw set.

Kids will have a great time discovering the 118 elements and their uses in the real world.

They will know what the smelly ones are, explosive and radioactive, and a lot more.

It also includes links to websites with videos and activities to find out more.

PROS

CONS

Factors To Consider Before Buying

Factors

Color

Since the intent is to find a periodic table of elements for children, you would need something that will contain chemical elements and colors that will entice them to use it. 

Children are drawn to brightly colored charts and posters most of the time. 

Young children are not yet interested in specific color combinations and designs. As long as they are familiar with the shade they see, their focus will stick to it.

Design

It would help if you had a periodic table that appealed to make sure that the kids using the elements poster would find it entertaining and exciting. 

You can base your choice on what the child is interested in as each of these periodic tables has its designs.

Size

It is also crucial that you check on the size of the periodic table of elements that you are planning to buy.  If you intend to stick it to the wall, you may want to choose the bigger option. 

They are printed in various sizes; therefore, you can find a poster that fits your needs.

Related Posts:

Material

This is an essential factor to consider, especially if you want your child to be familiar with the chemical elements they can quickly point at.

Find something that is durable and not easily torn or damaged like paper. Teachers can use most of the choices we presented at school since they can be on the wall with a pin.

Theme

This is another factor that needs to be checked by customers. Since children at school or teachers will use these, the themes chosen should be based on their ages. Various themes are depending on the manufacturers. 

There are even posters that have three different themes available, based on contents and properties.

FAQS

There are 188 elements and properties written on the table to date, and a customer should always check that information before they make a purchase.

Yes, you have an option to frame your periodic table. 

Only make sure that you get the specific size of the frame and get the measurement of the poster that you are framing.

If not, then you can leave it hanging.

And the #1 Periodic Table Poster is…

Our choice for the best periodic table poster is the Palace Learning Store Periodic Table of Elements. There are many options presented to us, but we reviewed all the factors that need consideration in choosing a chart or posters. 

The description of the elements is imperative to us that they show it precisely and clearly for the students to easily see. The design is another factor we looked at since we deal with children who lose interest in what they see right away. The completeness of the information on the table is another factor we made sure to search for. 

We think this table from Palace Learning is the best poster – you can frame it, stick it to the wall or hang it. Easy as that. A buy worth your money.

Editor's Choice

OUR # 1 Recommendation

Palace Learning Store Periodic Table of Elements

Best Biochemistry Textbook

What’s the Best Biochemistry Textbook Today? Reviews Here

As long as it has “Biochemistry Textbook” on the covers, that should be good enough. Hmm, not really.  Based on our experience, you can’t just pick any book you first put your hands on – especially when it comes to your Biochemistry course. 

If you want to pass with flying colors, allow us to help you look for the best Biochemistry textbook that will make you understand the course better.

OUR #1 RATED

Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry

Editor's Choice

OUR #2 RATED

Fundamentals of Biochemistry

OUR #3 RATED

Molecular Cell Biology

Top 10 Biochemistry Textbooks

1. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry

If you want to have clarity and complete comprehension for an introductory biochemistry course, this is the best choice you have. 

It offers a thoroughly updated survey of biochemistry enduring principles, definitive discoveries, and groundbreaking new advances with each edition based on Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry.

This book would be the seventh edition, but what Albert Lehniger started with, clear writing, careful explanations of critical concepts, helpful problem-solving support, and insightful communication of contemporary, is still being followed by the succeeding releases.

This release assures students that the authors created an extraordinary amount of exciting new findings without an overwhelming amount of extra discussion or detail.

Authored by Michael Cox and David Nelson but still following Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, this is a comprehensive book worth every penny you spend.

Editor's Choice

PROS

CONS

2. Fundamentals of Biochemistry

Highly acclaimed for discussing advances in biochemistry, this book mainly focuses on structural biology and bioinformatics. 

They provide a profound concept of a biochemical foundation rooted in chemistry to make students for the future scientific challenge.

It is crucial that a complex topic such as biochemical processes, biochemistry’s principles, and other related topics to this field of science be explained straightforwardly, with no frills.

This 5th edition assures students new pedagogy and enhanced visuals that provide a pathway for student learning.

PROS

CONS

3. Molecular Cell Biology

The author team certainly understands the dilemma of regular students who do not find general biochemistry interesting and exciting to read and learn.

They created a different approach and based it on experiments and clinical applications to entice readers. 

This is an excellent resource and a good read for medical students.

The authors emphasized experiments that define our understanding of cell biology, engaging students with the exciting breakthroughs that define the field’s history and point to its future.

The creators of this book are all world-class researchers and teachers, incorporating medically relevant examples where appropriate to help illustrate the connections between cell biology and health and human disease.

PROS

CONS

4. Biochemistry

The authors intend to promote understanding of biochemical concepts through highly readable chapters that consistently integrate stunning graphics with text.

Roger Miesfeld and Megan McEvoy came up with a biochemistry book that is both a learning tool for students and a teaching tool for instructors.

This assurance from them that the materials talk about fundamental concepts, biochemistry principles, and other basic functionalities are exceptionally readable explanations, stunning graphics, and rigorous content.

PROS

CONS

5. Biochemistry 006 Edition

The creation of this biochemistry textbook is based on the intention to present the beauty and usefulness of biochemistry in the everyday world.

Undergraduate students will benefit from this version as this contains a balanced and streamlined presentation since this has been updated throughout with new material and revised presentations.

Another impressive factor with this particular release is its integration with OWL, a powerful online learning system for chemistry with book-specific end-of-chapter material that engages students and improves output with their learning. 

This is absolutely essential for medical school and other science-related courses as it delves into basic chemistry and principles of biochemistry(1).

PROS

CONS

6. Netter's Essential Biochemistry

If what you are looking for is a concise textbook and can be easily understood, this can be the one you are looking for. 

Molecular-level chemistry concepts and introductory chemistry are thoroughly discussed in this book, with excellent illustrations to help you fully grasp what the subject is all about.

We appreciate that this book, despite the complication of the topics, is a straightforward approach. 

You won’t see excessive frills on details that will be very useful for a medical student. 

This current edition is a great resource for organic chemistry and its key concepts. It can be used as a review book if items are missed before.

Apart from those mentioned, you can also check your knowledge as some end-of-chapter questions and summaries help you reinforce the key concepts

PROS

CONS

7. Marks' Basic Medical Biochemistry

This is intended for medical students taking medical biochemistry. 

The core concept of using hypothetical patient vignettes is the approach used in this book. 

It shows a link BRS biochemistry to physiology, and the short “waiting room” vignettes apply the basic science of biochemistry to patient issues.

This chemistry textbook is the third edition, and there is another version to date. It still features full-color art, which helps a lot with students.

There are expanded clinical notes as well as bulleted end-of-chapter summaries. 

This third installation helps medical students comprehend the importance of the patient and bridges the gap between biochemistry, physiology, and clinical care.

PROS

CONS

8. Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry

You can tell that this textbook has been around for some time now since this is the 31st edition of Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry. 

This issue emphasizes the link between chemistry, biochemistry, and the understanding of disease states, disease pathology, and the practice of medicine.

It is delightful to read with its full-color illustrations, which help significantly in explaining the contents.

The fundamentals of biochemistry focus on this issue as this is an area wherein students must pay attention to.

This is absolutely an excellent resource for biochemistry molecular biology as this has a great introduction to it.

PROS

CONS

9. Biochemistry 9th 2019 Edition

Although the textbook is the 9th addition to the series, this remained true to the integrity of the original Stryer text.

Biochemistry books have always been consistent in delivering on-point writing, innovative graphics, coverage of the latest research techniques and advances, and a signature emphasis on physiological and relevance in medicine.

The 9th edition textbook has three focus intentions. The first is to have integrated text and media to help students visualize. 

The second is to promote practical problem-solving, and the last is to provide tools and resources for active learning.

Fact is, this textbook is designed not just for medical students but also for instructors to provide a more active environment in the classroom.

PROS

CONS

10. Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Biochemistry

Lippincott Illustrated reviews follow one rule: to provide an intuitive outline organization and boast a wealth of study aids that clarify challenging information and strengthen retention and understanding.

The biochemistry textbook is updated and revised to clarify clinical medicine and thoroughly explain what clinical information can be used in their course and everyday life.

They aspire to be one of the best biochemistry review books available in the market by improving their integrative case studies.

This review book also features full-color illustrations to enhance the understanding of every topic.

PROS

CONS

Things to Consider

Factors

Content Clarity

There must be content clarity not just with biochemistry but also with any other books and resources. 

Textbooks and other resources are used to learn about a particular subject and find out what needs to be done to function properly.

Comprehensiveness

A specific topic, especially in science, much more in biochemistry, does not stop in one subject. 

Everything is intercorrelated, and a textbook that talks about chemistry, its concept, and everything around it should be explained correctly to show its relevance with each other. 

Interactive Exercises

Biochemistry textbooks are not an exciting topic to read about, not to a regular student, but interactive exercises will give the reader an easier way to grasp the concept entirely.

Related Posts:

Practice Tests

A student needs to check whether what they read and how they understood it is correct. 

The best biochemistry books provide questionnaires and answers to determine if they understood the content of the biochemistry review book they are reading.

Illustrations

Advanced students will not have any issues with most of the terminologies and subjects but not everyone. 

Illustrations will significantly help a student follow what is happening with BR’s biochemistry or lives of living organisms and many more topics.

Special Features

Special features, such as animation, will help out in breaking the ice and ensure that you understand the basic functionalities, as well as the other functions of a specific topic.

And the #1 Biochemistry Textbook is...

Our number 1 choice is Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. 

Going through all the information provided and the needs of a medical student, you would greatly benefit from this book. The authors considered all the areas, and they had provided comprehensive data. A reference resource starts from introductory organic chemistry information to amino acids and how to interpret laboratory tests. 

We find it helpful that the book has taken time to prepare the students taking a biochemistry course before they engage themselves in clinical practice in human health. For us, this is the best biochemistry textbook released.

Editor's Choice

OUR # 1 Recommendation

Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry

PH3 Polar or Nonpolar

Phosphine – Is It Polar or Nonpolar?

PH3 is one of the most misunderstood chemical compounds due to its polarity properties that can be polar on nonpolar. Phosphine with the chemical formula PH3 is a clear, flammable gas and highly toxic compound. 

Is PH3 polar or nonpolar?

Let’s go and dive deeper into PH3 to stop the confusion.

Polarity or Nonpolarity of Phosphine or Phosphorus Trihydrate

PH3 is a polar molecule because it has a bent structure due to lone pairs of electrons and electron-electron repulsion. Phosphorus’s electronegativity is a nonpolar molecule because it is the same, but since Phosphorus has a lone pair, PH3 is a polar molecule. 

PH3 has five valence electrons and three hydrogens in Phosphorus, where the Hydrogen atom gives three electrons to the central atom P to meet the octet rule. The two valence electrons will form a negative region in pure P orbitals, while H will form a positive region. Due to uneven charge distribution, the lone pair gives a strong dipole moment of 0.58D, making the compound polar.

Molecular Structure & Formation

Use the Lewis Structure to identify the molecular geometry of Phosphorus Trihydrate. The central atom belongs to the P atom with a lone pair of electrons and three Hydrogen below. The trigonal pyramidal shape makes the whole molecule polar.

Hydrogen and Phosphorus are not in the same group at the periodic table. PH3 has five valence electrons and three hydrogen atoms. The molecular geometry was produced due to the one lone pair of electrons, and note that this pair avoids PH3 getting hybridized

How to Determine PH3 Polarity

Geometrical Shape

Using the Lewis Structure, the molecular geometry result is due to one lone pair of PH3 remaining at a distance from the three bond pairs. The shape of PH3 is trigonal pyramidal. Trigonal pyramidal determines that the molecule PH3 is an asymmetrical structure that does not cancel out the net charge. The geometry of these molecules is not symmetrical. 

Electronegativity

Phosphine or Phosphorus Trihydrate is one best candidate for being polar molecules that have nonpolar bonds. In one lone pair orbital with three hydrogen bonds, Hydrogen atoms and a Phosphorus atom have the same electronegativity. 

The electronegative property of PH3 found in the periodic table attracts shared pairs of valence electrons, creating covalent bonds. However, due to the unbonded electron, there will be asymmetrical charge distribution. With this, the PH3 is a polar molecule with nonpolar covalent bonds, not polar bonds. 

Dipole Moment

It is essential to identify the dipole moment of the compound. As the compound shares electrons unequally, a dipole moment occurs. When a compound creates Dipole moments, it occurs when there is a separation of charge. When atoms form polar bonds, the difference in electronegativity gives dipole. The more significant the electronegativity difference produces, the larger the moments. The distance also indicates the size of the moment, which is the same reason the compound is polar. 

In PH3’s case, the dipole moment produced is from the unshared pair that produces 0.58D, which is considered polar.

How is PH3 Used Commercially

How is PH3 Used Commercially

PH3 is a clear gas that produces a rotten fish smell [1] due to substituted Phosphine and Diposphane. PH3 is used in the production of semiconductor and plastic industries. Phosphine is an essential ingredient in manufacturing LED lights. It is used in semiconductors to introduce Phosphorus to silicon crystals and dopants for creating semiconductors. In the production of flame retardants, the flammable properties of PH3 are of great use. 

The toxic properties of PH3, although very harmful to humans in a higher period of exposure. White Phosphorus is used in the chemical processing of insecticide for grains, animal feeds, and leaf-stored products. In addition, PH3 is used as a polymerization initiator and fumigant that creates high risk when inhaled. PH3 is industrially made from white Phosphorus producing liquified ga

FAQS

PH3 is a polar molecule. The geometric structure is an indicator of the compound’s polarities. Using the Lewis structure, we identified that PH3 creates a nonsymmetrical shape with a 93.5 bond angle. Due to the unbonded pair of electrons, PH3 is considered a polar molecule that creates an electronegativity difference between Hydrogen’s electrons and Phosphorus.

PH3 is basic. In Lewis Theory, the basic donate pairs of electrons while the acidic accepts it. Since PH3 has unshared pairs that can be donated, PH3 is proven to be basic.

The PH3 is formed when hot boiling water or any strong base is combined. The boiling point of PH3 is -87.7 °C, and the melting point is -132.8 °C. It is more soluble in water with 31.2 mg/100 ml solubility.

In Summary

PH3 charges on its both positive and negative regions. The covalent bond has electronegative and produces dipole moments. Using the Lewis Structure, we can identify the shape of the molecule. With this, PH3 is polar even though the bond is a nonpolar covalent.

References:

  1. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Phosphine