Best Lab Notebook

10 Best Lab Notebooks: Practical Guide (2022 Updated)

A scientific experiment is a crucial process and having a trusty scientific notebook for your Life Science classes is essential to document the detailed development of your experiments.

If you’re looking for great birthday presents or a Christmas gift to give to a science student, we searched for the best lab notebook that can serve as your special gift!

OUR #1 RATED

Student Lab Notebook: 100 Spiral Bound

Editor's Choice

OUR #2 RATED

Barbakem Scientific Lab Notebook

OUR #3 RATED

BookFactory Student Lab Notebook (Scientific Grid Format)

Top 10 Lab Notebooks of 2022

1. Student Lab Notebook: 100 Spiral Bound

A lab notebook serves as a permanent record for experiments and a reference for scientists for continuous study [1].

While a regular notebook can be used for taking down notes, the Student Lab Notebook offers notable features that can effectively protect scientific documentation.

This scientific notebook has a laminated front and back cover or archival quality, 100 carbonless pages with perforated copy pages, chronologically numbered, and a premium thick paper.

It also has a foldable back cover to prevent bleeding between pages and scientific reference information.

Editor's Choice

PROS

CONS

2. Barbakem Scientific Lab Notebook

This lab notebook is the most recommended to use by ChemistryHall.com, offering almost all the standard features that you can look for.

It contains 100 carbonless pages with a perforated copy page and is consecutively numbered while the top page remains.

For clarity, it measures 11 x 9 x 1 inch with ¼ inch graph paper, white top, and copy page.

Also, it has a spiral-bound laminated front and back cover with scientific reference information.

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3. BookFactory Student Lab Notebook (Scientific Grid Format)

Scientific research won’t be verified true without keeping good records or proving how the outcome was obtained [2].

Thus, we recommend this notebook that is produced using acid-free paper!

BookFactory features a durable translucent cover with Wire O Bind, and the book lies flat when opened!

It measures 8.5 x 11 inches with ¼ inches grid format and can be with or without a copy page.

Also, it has an acid-free paper of archival quality and comes with a “Notebook Guidelines” page and a “User Data” page.

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4. Rediform National Engineering and Science Notebook

An ideal Chemistry lab notebook, the Rediform National features a simple yet academically designed gray cover.

It has a College Ruling with margin-facing pages and 10 x 10 quad ruling on the back pages.

It measures 11 x 8.5 inches, has 60 sheets, 120 pages, spiral-bound, with white paper and a blue ruling.

This notebook is recommended as a scientific notebook and is perfect even for Engineering students to make design mock-ups easier.

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5. Book Factory Biology Lab Notebook

Another recommended Science notebook features a durable translucent cover and Biology-related design and is proudly produced by BookFactory – a Veteran-owned firm in Ohio, USA.

It measures 8.5 x 11 inches and has ¼ inch grid format with Wire O binding, so the book lies flat when opened.

In addition, it is available with or without a carbonless duplicate, has a perforated copy page containing a “Duplicate” watermark, and has fully formatted and numbered pages.

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6. iScholar Composition Book

The iScholar Composition Book features a black marble cover, and its firm binding ensures pages have a tight band and is ideal even as an Engineering notebook.

It has a thick and heavy board back cover, with bright white and durable sewn pages.

It measures 9.75 x 7.5 inches in 5 x 5 graph ruling to easily draw any illustrations and contains 100 sheets per book.

Moreover, its inside covers contain a class schedule, contact list, multiplication table, and conversion tables.

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7. Organic Chemistry Notebook by Hayden – McNeil

While most laboratory notebooks on this list almost offer the same features, this product has an Organic Chemistry cover design and is ideal for related professions. It has a laminated front and back cover containing the latest periodic table.

This lab notebook has 100 carbonless duplicate sets and a foldable back cover to prevent bleeding from the wettest fountain pen inks.

Furthermore, the cover has reference information, including Mass Spectral Interpretation Guide, abbreviations, solvents, and acidity-related equations.

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8. Scientific Notebook Company Research Laboratory Notebook

This lab notebook is ideal for long storage, offering a company flush trimmed cover with Smyth sewn pages.

It has a black imitation leather cover and can be used as a research notebook with an issuance page, an instruction page, and table of contents pages.

Its page dimensions are 9.25 x 11.5 inches, containing 192 pages with a ¼ grid and signature blocks.

Also, this laboratory notebook is available in red, burgundy, green, matte black, and blue imitation leather cover.

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9. BookFactory Lab Notebook/Laboratory Notebook

This professional-grade laboratory notebook comes in hardbound with a black and burgundy imitation leather cover.

It has foil stamped borders and lettering and is FSC Certified.

This notebook measures 8 x 10 inches with a ¼ inches grid format, and BookFactory stated that they proudly produce this product from Ohio, USA.

Also, it contains a User Data page and Documentation Guidelines page.

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10. Book Factory Scientific Lab Notebook

This laboratory notebook is also proudly produced by BookFactory in Ohio, USA.

It is Smyth sewn, so the book lies flat when opened.

It is also tamper-evident with archival quality acid-free paper and an imitation leather cover in black, blue, red, burgundy, and green.

It measures 8 ⅞ x 11 ¼ inches with a ¼ inches grid format and is a hardbound book durably coated to protect its contents page.

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Buying Guide

buying guide

Number of Pages

One of the top things to consider when buying a lab notebook is its purpose. In short, the number of pages that it contains, both top and copy page, should cover the entire activity or experiment to be conducted. 

For instance, if you’re conducting basic research, you may opt to use 60 to 100 pages. For longer studies, you can go for 240 to 312 pages.

Paper Quality 

Considering that experiments or research can be mind-boggling, jotting down notes or creating tables can be time-consuming. So when choosing a laboratory notebook, make sure to buy the one with the best quality and longer lifespan, and if you can, opt for those offering acid-free archival paper that can last from 20 up to 1000 years.

Size

Choosing the ideal size of a laboratory notebook also matters. Most brands offer a standard size of 8.5 x 11 inches, similar to the dimension of a short bond paper. However, other manufacturers offer a bit smaller or larger size. 

Thus, it depends on the user whether to go for the size standard or opt for a smaller or larger notebook, as the decision relies on their preferences.

Durability

A lab notebook can be used for different purposes like applying for funding from an organization, as a reference for questions about an experiment, and for other researchers to study [3]. Thus, it should be built with durable materials from the outer cover to the page binding to ensure that the documents can last for years and serve their purpose.

With or Without Hardcover?

Another important thing to consider before purchasing a lab notebook is whether to use a softbound or a hardcover. Although others prefer to use the one without hardcover, it is ideal to purchase a hardbound book if you’re planning to store it for the years to come. Take note that hardcovers protect the pages, thereby extending the lifespan of a notebook. 

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With or Without Pocket & Pen Holder?

In terms of convenience, a pocket and pen holder are ideal if you’re constantly moving during an experiment or research. It helps keep things organized and handy as you can have everything in the notebook related to the specific experiment. 

However, continuous use of the pocket may cause further damage to the cover. Thus, if you’re looking to store the notebook, you may opt for a laboratory notebook without a pocket and pen holder.

Refillable 

Conducting research and experiments is quite unpredictable, especially if you’re studying new findings or developing ideas. That’s why it is ideal to use refillable laboratory notebooks to ensure that you can document everything, especially if any changes occur or new hypotheses are made. 

In addition, a refillable notebook can help organize in one place all the relevant information regarding your experiment.

Aesthetic

Yes, an electronic laboratory notebook should be handy and nice; nothing beats having a well-designed lab notebook in your hand. It is best to go for lab books that suit your both your taste and needs. 

There are varying design covers, like a fully laminated or clear cover or a hardbound with patterns and different colors. Furthermore, it is ideal for legal and storing purposes to have a laboratory notebook that looks professionally bound. 

Leaf Format

The leaf format is important in a laboratory notebook. It should be numbered to organize the documents perfectly and have scientific grid format page dimensions for creating graphs or other illustrations. 

For instance, if your purpose is to jot down notes, one with a college ruling is recommended. Meanwhile, grid ruling is ideal for making illustrations in Organic Chemistry. It is best to go for a scientific notebook that has both formats.

Price

The price matters when buying a laboratory notebook. Since different brands and products offer varying features, the price will differ. 

However, the price should match the features that the lab books offer. It usually ranges from around $5 to $25, and anything beyond that may be too expensive, especially if it also has the same features as the others. 

A spiral-bound one is pricier than sewn pages as you can refill them, saving you more money than buying another scientific notebook. 

FAQS

Since laboratory notebooks are produced for documentation of experiments and the like, it is mostly utilized by scientists, researchers, chemistry students, math students, and lab assistants. It helps them keep track of their work, promotes note-taking efficiency, and is tamper-evident as it contains numbered pages.

Yes, lab notebooks are legal documents that serve as a permanent record of a research or experiment’s work development and outcome. It can be used for legal purposes such as patent filing and protection, copyright claims, and evidence for formal investigation due to scientific delinquency [4].

And the #1 Lab Notebook is...

While having an electronic lab notebook may seem ideal, having the standard lab notebook with an elastic pen loop is cheaper and more reliable than an electronic notebook. After hours of research and testing, we came to the conclusion that the Student Lab Notebook is the best laboratory notebook in the market!

Our team considered it one of the best laboratory notebooks as it contains pollution-free carbonless pages without extra carbon paper. Although it does not have a user data page, it is ideal for group or solo research and has page protection from most pens. 

Whether you’re looking to use it for your Math class or as a duplicate laboratory notebook, this brand would definitely provide you with value for your money!

Editor's Choice

OUR # 1 Recommendation

Student Lab Notebook: 100 Spiral Bound

Best Chemistry Set For Adults

10 Best Chemistry Sets For Adults (2022 Updated)

Learning chemistry isn’t only for budding scientists. Regardless of age, you can equip yourself with useful chemistry knowledge through hands-on fun experiments!

If you’re looking for the best chemistry kits in the market, then you’re in the right place. Our team spent 72 hours researching and testing the best chemistry set for adults!

OUR #1 RATED

Kids Science Kit

Editor's Choice

OUR #2 RATED

Discovery Extreme Chemistry STEM Science Kit

OUR #3 RATED

Thames & Kosmos Chemistry Chem C500

Top 10 Chemistry Sets for Adults

1. Kids Science Kit

Don’t be fooled by the naming convention; this Learn & Climb kids science kit is designed for kids, but older people may enjoy all the same.

With 65 chemical reactions within, you will surely discover your passion for experimenting and learning chem while enjoying! 

The kit consists of a manual and an instructional DVD to guide you throughout.

Editor's Choice

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CONS

2. Discovery Extreme Chemistry STEM Science Kit

This chemistry kit is directed towards audiences interested in compounds discovery and chemical reactions.

Unlike other kits, the age requirement for this is higher, so this set for grown-ups is sure to propel your learning more than other chemistry sets.

It contains around 40 color-science fun experimental procedures and supplementary lab equipment and chemicals.

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3. Thames & Kosmos Chemistry Chem C500

Thames & Kosmos is one of the leading brands in producing science kits, so rest assured you’re in the right hands with this one.

The C500 is an introductory chemistry kit that deals with matter (solid, liquid, gas), acids & bases.

It’s one of the best chemistry sets where oldies and children start to learn chem from square one. Plus, they clearly explain the instructions and the science behind each experiment!

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4. Thames & Kosmos Chem C1000 (V 2.0)

This chemistry kit from Thames & Kosmos is an upgrade from the C500.

Parent’s Choice Foundation even dubbed it one of the best chemistry sets for kids and grown-ups.

This complete chemistry set is a more advanced version, with all the experiments amounting to 125.

Contrary to the C500, this kit focuses more on food items as the main ingredient, so be prepared to transform your kitchen into a home lab!

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5. Happy Atoms Magnetic Molecular Modeling Complete Set

Understanding atomic structures are critical when studying chemistry.

The Happy Atoms chemistry set is one of the most revolutionary chemistry kits for this intended purpose.

You get a 50-atom set to bond and create molecules out of the box. The complete Happy Atoms set is stored in a drawstring bag for easy portability.

Happy Atoms is a premium-class chemical bonding chemistry set no matter the age!

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6. Thames & Kosmos Chem C3000 (V 2.0) Chemistry Set

This Thames & Kosmos chemistry science kit is the closest to a complete professional learning kit. Although it does come at a high price, you still get a great bang for your buck here.

This kit includes 333 experimental procedures with extremely premium equipment and materials. The concepts discussed inside this Thames & Kosmos kit are for more advanced learning, so it’s not suited for a child’s age of 11 and below.

Some topics include organic chemistry, electrochemical reactions, and electrolysis.

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7. Elenco Edu-Toys Chemistry Lab

Elenco has produced some of the best science kits for kids.

This time around, they released a chemistry kit that beats all others in terms of included equipment.

Having sufficient tools is necessary for learning, so this complete set contains never-before-seen devices like an alcohol burner, test tubes, and goggles.

Plus, the safe-tested 80 experiments hope to keep a child safe from harm.

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8. MindWare Science Academy: Bubble, Fizz & Foam Ultimate Chemistry Lab

If you’re into chemical equations and reactions that lead to fizzy, bubbly results, this is the chemistry kit for you.

Using the kit, you can conduct crystal growing experiments, fun fizzy results, and color science — of course, while keeping things highly educational.

The included lab station makes anywhere you do experimental procedures, your own lab.

Concepts are basic, and even a child could grasp the embedded learning.

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9. Cherish XT Home Distiller

This chemistry kit is unlike any other. It’s one of the cheapest yet most sophisticated home distillers in the world for advanced chemists.

You can use this chemistry set for distillation, purification, and synthesis. It’s not one of those introductory chemistry sets for a budding scientist. This is for experienced adults (or kids!) who enjoy learning more about the organic chemistry course and other topics related. 

All you need is a lab coat, and you’re a full-fledged chem whiz!

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10. WILD ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Test Tube Chemistry Lab

This chemistry set from Wild Environmental Science is the best chemistry kit out there if you want fully compliant and certified materials out of the box.

With the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act (CPSIA), you know the items are high quality.

The kit contains 50+ fun experiments that deal with learning green science (eco-friendly experiments), perfect for kids and adults alike. You get to use interesting molecules and metals like zinc and copper!

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Buying Guide

buying guide

Complexity Of The Experiment

When buying chemistry sets for adults, it’s smart to seek more advanced scientific kits containing complex experiments. Although research suggests that children are also equipped to understand complex concepts [1], grown-ups are better cognitively developed and would better appreciate a kit that appeals to their more advanced level of understanding. 

Number of Experiments Included

The best chemistry sets include a good deal of experimentations so more learning can be assimilated. Many short and simple experiments are ideal for a child’s age, while the older audiences would like more complicated ones. 

Having a few yet complex and challenging experiments wouldn’t be so bad either. What’s important is that the kit appeals to the cognitive needs of the user.

Levels Of Difficulty & Fun

It would take adults lesser time to learn chemistry than kids would. So an average to advanced level of difficulty for a kit is appropriate for older users. 

Most grown-ups wouldn’t classify “fun” as a parameter for selection, so there’s no imminent need, say, for a crystal-growing activity in the kit. What matters is the concept that the kit imparts.

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Included Equipment 

The number and types of equipment are inconsequential if the activities in the kit don’t require them. Most kids love more stacked inclusions, but only the necessary ones are required for older users. 

When looking for chemistry kits, search for those that utilize all the equipment mentioned in the kit.

Easy To Follow Procedure

Reading comprehension and metacognition is highly dependent on age [2]. While younger users may require more in-depth and clear-cut explanations and procedures, older people can understand procedures that might seem complex or fuzzy. 

So an easy-to-follow procedure is not necessarily required, but adult learners would better comprehend basic instructions for the experiments.

Easy to Understand Manual

Same with the procedure, a manual is ideal to be easily understandable so both kids and older users alike may comprehend the information more accessibly. Plus, a complete and colored manual helps in engagement. 

If an adult learner is new to chemistry, an easy-to-understand manual is ideal to supplement their understanding of the concepts.

Availability of Resources

What good is a chemistry science kit if the resources needed for experimenting are not readily available? 

In selecting the best chemistry sets above, we ensured that each one included resources for every experimentation in their manual. Otherwise, there is no point in the kit if state regulations would limit learners from obtaining the molecules or the reactants needed.

Some chemistry kits use common household items too, which is helpful.

Price

Naturally, the best chemistry set for adults are those that don’t break the bank. However, you have to expect a good value for money for more expensive chemistry sets. 

The price would highly depend on what experimental procedures are included, plus other perks like tools and manuals. The price rarely matters as long as the kit is a good bang for one’s buck, like Thames & Kosmos C3000.

FAQS

Yes, chemistry sets for kids can be used even by adult users. What matters is the knowledge these people can gain from using such kits. Although, chemistry sets appeal more to older learners if the concepts discussed are more complex and age-appropriate to the user.

Chemistry sets should contain children-friendly and non-hazardous chemicals like uranium dust and sodium cyanide [3]. A chem kit should contain instruction manuals for the various experiments included in the package, the necessary tools & reagents needed for those procedures, and safety gears, if possible.

Yes, you can set up your own Chem lab at home. All you need is ample space, a dedicated room, and a bunch of necessary tools, reagents, and equipment for your chemistry experiments. 

And the #1 Chemistry Set For Adults is…

Undoubtedly, the best chemistry set for adults is the Learn & Climb science kit. It sits perfectly between amply numbered experiments while being a good value for money. 

It’s not only the 65 diverse activities included that make it a great option, but all the supplementary perks to support a child or an adult learner’s chem learning. With this kit, adults are sure to learn chemistry without breaking the bank!

Editor's Choice

OUR # 1 Recommendation

Kids Science Kit

Best Science Kits For Teens

15 Best Science Kits for Teens: Full Reviews (2022 Updated)

The journey of raising a young scientist begins with getting kids interested in Science, and one great introduction to instill basic concepts to children is by using science kits!

Our team spent 72 hours researching and testing the best science kits for teens if you have a teenager in mind you wish to bask in Science’s wonders.

OUR #1 RATED

4M 5557 Crystal Growing Science Experimental Kit

Editor’s Choice

4M 5557 Crystal Growing Science Experimental Kit


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  • Teaches chemistry
  • Aesthetic crystals
  • Specifically made for artsy scien-teens
  • Free display dome
  • 7 different hands-on experiments

OUR #2 RATED

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Magic Chemistry Set


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Magic Chemistry Set


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  • Magic piques kid’s interest easily
  • Made for teens interested in magic
  • Illustrated and clear instructions
  • 10 mind-blowing STEM experiments
  • All tools needed inclusive

OUR #3 RATED

LEGO Boost Creative Toolbox Fun Robot Building Set and Educational Coding Kit


LEGO Boost Creative Toolbox Fun Robot Building Set and Educational Coding Kit


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  • Fun robot construction perks
  • Teach kids basic programming
  • Fun game awaits in the app
  • Trains kids’ critical thinking skills
  • Detailed instructions

Top 15 Science Kits For Teens

1. 4M 5557 Crystal Growing Science Experimental Kit

Science experiments are not only supposed to be educational but also aesthetic.

This crystal-growing kit is one of the best science gifts for your teens who are passionate about geology and the arts.

Let them grow crystals from scratch through the wonders of chemistry!

Using simple chemical reactions, watch the combination of ingredients become solid, display-worthy crystals — ideal for social media flaunting!

Editor’s Choice

4M 5557 Crystal Growing Science Experimental Kit


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PROS

  • Teaches chemistry
  • Aesthetic crystals
  • Specifically made for artsy scien-teens
  • Free display dome
  • 7 different hands-on experiments

CONS

  • Limited experiments
  • 7 days before results appear

2. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Magic Chemistry Set

Most chemistry kits teach kids technical concepts, but this National Geographic chemistry kit breaks the cycle by appealing to the wizards within teens!

Experience chemistry experiments like never before.

This set contains 10 magical seemingly magical tricks grounded on scientific principles—a splendid option especially for high school students who’ll perform in their talent show.

Awestruck the audience with the magic of STEM!


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Magic Chemistry Set


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PROS

  • Magic piques kid’s interest easily
  • Made for teens interested in magic
  • Illustrated and clear instructions
  • 10 mind-blowing STEM experiments
  • All tools needed inclusive

CONS

  • Some parts are choking hazard
  • Interesting but limited experiments

3. LEGO Boost Creative Toolbox Fun Robot Building Set and Educational Coding Kit

Robot kits are the most popular STEM kits. [1] Some kids learn as they tinker with things, and if your teen shares the same trait, this is a great science gift. This creative toolbox LEGO kit specializes in teaching mechanical physics and programming to children.

Using LEGO bricks, teens can engage in 5 high-quality robot construction controlled using mobile devices.

Countless challenges and puzzles await once you access the app. Try to get Vernie to use his robotic arm!

This is an innovative kit that is perfect for your futuristic teens.


LEGO Boost Creative Toolbox Fun Robot Building Set and Educational Coding Kit


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PROS

  • Fun robot construction perks
  • Teach kids basic programming
  • Fun game awaits in the app
  • Trains kids’ critical thinking skills
  • Detailed instructions

CONS

  • Requires mobile devices
  • Expensive

4. Snap Circuits Light Electronics Exploration Kit

Wiring and electronics are essential skills that every child must master, and this electronics kit can get them there.

Snap Circuits specialize in creating science kits that teach electronic skills. This is their advanced version, and every project they tackle increases in difficulty. [2]

Unlike other circuit boards, the Snap Circuits version is disassemble-friendly.

This is why all the circuits amount to 175 science projects! All they need to do is wire-circuit boards with the right connections.


Snap Circuits Light Electronics Exploration Kit


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PROS

  • 175 exciting experiments
  • 55 total components
  • Made for older kids
  • Teaches basic concepts of electronics
  • Detailed manual

CONS

  • Snap Circuits is a bit pricey
  • Younger children should buy earlier versions

5. National Geographic Dual LED Student Microscope Science Kit

For younger children and teens alike who are interested in exploring the microscopic world, this microscope kit from National Geographic is one of the best options to get. 

With dual microscope lenses, kids can see bizarre micro-mysteries up to 50x magnification.

Plus, you get to try the magnifying power out on the free microscope accessories like 10 prepared slides.

Also, children can track the life cycle of brine shrimp eggs in this biology kit!


National Geographic Dual LED Student Microscope Science Kit


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PROS

  • Dual-lens microscope
  • Extra supplies like petri dish and tweezers
  • 10 prepared microscope slides
  • 20x-50x magnifying power
  • Teach kids microscopy & biology

CONS

  • Non-portable
  • High magnification can be disorienting

6. Abacus Brands Bill Nye’s VR Science Kit and VR Space Lab

Bill Nye, the Science Guy, brings his passion to an innovative science kit that makes perfect science gifts for teens who follow him.

This VR science kit introduces this wonderful world to kids through the eyes of Science.

The package includes an informative 154 info-packed instruction book that houses tons of learning.

For a more immersive experience, you may get a VR to watch the book in action through a mobile device.


Abacus Brands Bill Nye's VR Science Kit and VR Space Lab


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PROS

  • VR to up the learning experience
  • 154-page book
  • 50+ projects
  • VR is compatible with all phone sizes
  • No-VR set is an option

CONS

  • Phone required for VR
  • Somewhat pricey

7. Elenco Deluxe Learn to Solder Kit

Introduce teens on how they can operate printed circuit boards using soldering tools.

What a great way to reel teens into metalworking!

A clear and detailed manual will walk kids through how to use the soldering electronics kit.

They can explore and be creative on using the station, but adult supervision is advised, especially for untrained teens and newbies.


Elenco Deluxe Learn to Solder Kit


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PROS

  • Real soldering tools
  • Best for older teens
  • Has detailed instructions on usage
  • Introduces electronics and metalworking skills
  • All tools provided in the kit

CONS

  • Requires parental supervision
  • It might require parental expertise

8. 4M Kidzlabs Anti Gravity Magnetic Levitation Science Kit

Science fiction depicts anti-gravity in the most mind-boggling ways, but this kit allows teens to star in their own movies by playing with anti-gravity magnetic levitation themselves!

Unleash the mad scientist within them through this mechanical physics kit.

Whether they’re looking to make a pencil float or levitate a screw, teens can do it as long as it ties with magnetism!


4M Kidzlabs Anti Gravity Magnetic Levitation Science Kit


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PROS

  • 7 fun scientific experiments
  • Detailed directions on usage and care
  • Unrivaled STEM kit for sci-fi-natics!
  • Introduces magnetism concepts
  • 2013 product of the year

CONS

  • Some parts are choking hazard
  • Limited projects to explore

9. Playz My First Coding & Computer Science Kit

Kid computer scientific kits are gaining popularity among kids nowadays, and taking one of the top spots is this coding kit from Playz.

If you want to raise a budding computer scientist, a coding kit like this is one of the best ones to get.

It’s loaded with value as the package contains 30+ tools and ingredients for your teenager’s learning.


Playz My First Coding & Computer Science Kit


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PROS

  • Teach programming concepts tangibly
  • Create tasteful art pieces
  • Colorful lab guide
  • 30+ tools and ingredients
  • Money-back guarantee

CONS

  • No actual computer
  • Some parts are choking hazard

10. Thames & Kosmos My Robotic Pet – Tumbling Hedgehog

When your teenager has gotten tired of building Legos, how about you ask them to build a robot?

Thames & Kosmos developed an assemble-able hedgehog robot that will get your teen challenged in building anything else, aside from their own sets of Lego bricks.

The resulting Thames & Kosmos hedgehog ranger robot is clap-operated for an extra fun experience!

It rolls, curls, and tumbles like an actual hedgehog. Want a pet but can’t get one? Buy this science kit instead!


Thames & Kosmos My Robotic Pet - Tumbling Hedgehog


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PROS

  • Mind-boggling assembly
  • Best for older teens
  • Clap-controlled robot
  • Teaches mechanics
  • 172 building pieces

CONS

  • Too challenging for early teens
  • Requires battery (not included)

11. Thames & Kosmos Chem C1000

Thames & Kosmos brings their twist to chemistry sets with the C1000.

It’s not your regular chemistry kit that’s all about fun and games.

This teaches teens how to handle lab equipment while instilling chemistry concepts properly.

With 125 fun experiments, investigate food science in relation to the physiology of the human body. 

P.S. Thames & Kosmos calls this their beginner’s complete chemistry set!


Thames & Kosmos Chem C1000


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PROS

  • 125 diverse experiments
  • 30 pieces of tools
  • 80-page detailed directions
  • Teaches food science
  • Introductory kit (upgradeable!)

CONS

  • Equipment is not premium-quality
  • Limited chemical supplies included

12. Thames & Kosmos Physics Workshop

Einstein began his fascination with Science at the age of 6.

Want to raise another prodigy?

Then you can try this Thames & Kosmos physics workshop!

With more than 300 building pieces, teens can explore building windmills, cranes, and rail cars, to name a few, while teaching fundamental physics lessons.

This Thames & Kosmos physics workshop is a great science kit where teens can create science toys with only their imagination as the limit.


Thames & Kosmos Physics Workshop


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PROS

  • Teaches physics concepts
  • One of the premier science kits in physics
  • 305 building tools
  • Contains clear instructions
  • Explore with machines & gears

CONS

  • A bit expensive
  • It can be frustrating to assemble

13. Stopmotion Explosion HD Animation Kit

Science kits do not only revolve around a basic kit that teaches STEM concepts – even animation can be considered an artful class of Science!

This Stopmotion kit is unique among all the kits and STEM toys.

Let kids capture breath-taking stop-motion animation with a low-profile full HD camera and let their imagination take over as they create custom animation armatures!


Stopmotion Explosion HD Animation Kit


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PROS

  • 1080p resolution
  • Flexible stand camera
  • Useful for Lego brickfilms and modeling clay
  • Free software (in their website)
  • Best STEM kits for teen animators

CONS

  • Requires laptop to use
  • Need objects to make stop-motion vids

14. Makeblock mBot Ranger Transformable

Robot kits and programming tools are separate things, but the Makeblock kit converges each creative toolbox into one awesome toy!

This high-quality kit teaches kids programming using Arduino C language or Scratch software while an app allows them to control the bots.

If you have a Comp Sci passionate child, then this is one of the best scientific gifts for teens!


Makeblock mBot Ranger Transformable


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PROS

  • Uses real programming languages
  • Has a dedicated Makeblock app
  • Software compatible in all OS
  • Interactive and programmable
  • Durable build

CONS

  • Requires phone for controls
  • Requires laptop for programming

15. Thames & Kosmos Architectural Engineering Kit

Thames & Kosmos do not only excel in making chemistry sets, but their engineering and architecture kit also takes Legos to a whole new level. 

Build up to 20 amazing structures and real-world buildings through the 308 pieces provided out of the box.

A 44-page manual guides the teens as they explore the world of engineering.


Thames & Kosmos Architectural Engineering Kit


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PROS

  • Teaches engineering & architecture
  • 308 total pieces
  • 20 amazing structures
  • 44-page detailed guide
  • Parents’ choice award (gold winner)

CONS

  • Requires patience and time
  • Complicated for younger teens

Buying Guide

buying guide

Interest

The best science kits for teens are the ones that resonate with your child’s interests and preferences. Before buying one, make sure you know what they’re passionate about so they’ll be more motivated to go through the kit. Say, if they like solutions or Harry Potter, a chemistry kit might be the best choice.

Level of Expertise/Knowledge in Science

Although a science kit is meant to teach basic science concepts, a certain level of background knowledge is imperative to optimize the learning experience. The purpose of STEM kits is to reinforce their learning on a subject. So it’s ideal for kids with no background on subjects to focus on basic STEM playthings before they try more advanced kits out.

Branch of Science

Some branches are more complicated than others, and you must also consider this when choosing what science kit to get your child. For instance, a biology kit may only deal with microscopy and exploration that incites curiosity, while a programming kit requires critical thinking and knowledge of programming languages. 

This means that buying this for young children might be reconsidered. Ask your teenager about their preferred scientific branch to gain a better insight. [3]

Included Equipment

As long as the included equipment for the science experiments is available, then there should be no issues. Although sometimes, a science kit requires separate ingredients or chemicals, and certain states restrict said chemicals.

In cases as such, steer clear from kits that ask you to buy separate ingredients and go for those that include all the needed equipment for the experiments.

Easy To Understand Manual

A clear manual is a must, especially if the target of STEM kits are children and younger teens, as this makes the learning process and instruction-following more manageable. Moreover, consider their gross and fine motor skills when searching for kits to buy as this will highly affect how they use the toy. [4]

Famous STEM toy companies like National Geographic and Thames & Kosmos give the best instruction manuals in their kits which other toy companies should follow.

Availability of Necessary Resource Materials

Most science toys include all the necessary resources to fulfill all activities included in the package. For some instances where external resources are needed, companies usually provide links to supplement learning. If toys don’t include all the necessary and complementary resources, then that’s a red flag to watch out for.

Always read reviews and the product pages to be up-to-date on customers’ thoughts and perceptions of the product.

Related Posts:

Number of Activities

Ideally, your kit should contain as many activities as possible for the learning to be continuous and consistent. Although, few activities are acceptable as long as they’re descriptive, comprehensive, and lengthy to finish. Look for activities that promote hands-on learning, as these are more effective in getting children engaged. 

Durability

Durability is a key pillar when selecting STEM toys. Given children’s naughty and active nature, there is a likelihood that toys get destroyed easily from mishandling. Choose toys with premium or at least high-quality builds. 

Avoid plastic as much as possible, especially in toys for younger, choking hazard-prone kids. However, plastic is considered safe for perfectly conscious teenagers during play.

Affordability

Ideally, cheaper toys are better since they can help you save more money. However, the price influences the quality of materials that you get out of the box most of the time. 

“Things with interesting parts and well-made tools will go so much farther than a big box of cheap stuff.” — Douglas Bowker, Animator 

The best thing to do is to find the balance between price and quality. An expensive yet effective science kit is so much more valuable than cheap, ineffective toys.

How To Inspire Teens To Learn Science

Inspiring teens can be a tedious task if you don’t have the right tools and the right approach. The best way to get teens involved in STEM is to make them see its relevance and importance in their lives.

Using tools like a STEM kit or toy may also kickstart their scientific investigation as long as the devices are age-appropriate, cognitively engaging, and somehow speaks to their interest or preferences. 

Parental influence is also instrumental in motivating teens to pursue scientific careers.

FAQS

How will science benefit teens?

Learning Science gives them a clear trend edge and mastery over others who aren’t inclined in scientific fields. In today’s day and age, kids are more engaged in STEM than the previous generations ever were. This level of inclination to innovative technology piques teenagers’ interest to stay up to date with the latest tech developments.

What type of science kit should you buy for a teenager?

The best STEM kits to buy teenagers are those that are age-appropriate to their level of understanding, kits that pique their interest and curiosity, and those that motivate them to engage in further scientific inquiry post-kit exploration. Today, where tech innovation leads the industry, robot or programming kits are the best options for kids and teens.

And the #1 Science Kit For Teens is…

With a combination of scientific exploration in chemistry, tasteful aesthetics, and affordability, one of the best science kits for teens is the Crystal Growing Science Experimental Kit! This kit consists of 7 chemistry experiments and a display dome where your teens can showcase their completed projects. 

Not only do you increase a teen’s knowledge of chemistry, but they also produce a tasteful art display they can flaunt to their friends. Indeed, it’s an ideal STEM kit for artsy high schoolers and adults, too!

Editor’s Choice

4M 5557 Crystal Growing Science Experimental Kit

OUR # 1 Recommendation

4M 5557 Crystal Growing Science Experimental Kit

  • Teaches chemistry to teens
  • Contains 7 hands-on chem experiments
  • Beautiful displayable crystals
  • Comes with a free display dome


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NO2 Lewis Structure

NO2 Lewis Structure: Complete Guide (2022 Updated)

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is one of the covalent compounds containing a central nitrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom and double-bonded to another oxygen atom. 

Our team spent a few hours researching to give you information about the NO2 Lewis structure.

Understanding The NO2 Lewis Structure

One nitrogen atom and two oxygen atoms make up nitrogen dioxide. [1] Nitrogen belongs to group 15 elements in the periodic table with five valence electrons, while the oxygen atom has six electrons.

The nitrogen atom is in the center, surrounded by Oxygen atoms. We’ll now use dot structures to encircle the electrons with valence electrons. There are 17 valence electrons in the Lewis structure of NO2 – with an unpaired electron that is not stable because of the odd number of electrons. 

Because we have a triatomic atom, our structure will contain a center atom connected to terminal atoms. After the central atom selection, you can now assign lone pairs to the atoms. Atoms need to achieve octet as covalent bonds are formed when atoms share their valence electrons with other atoms.

Understanding The NO2 Lewis Structure

How To Draw The Lewis Structure of NO2

  • Calculate the total number of valence electrons. one nitrogen atom. Two oxygen atoms make up nitrogen dioxide. The valence shell of Nitrogen has five electrons, while in the valence shell of an oxygen atom, there are six electrons. Resulting in a total number of 17 valence electrons.
  • Draw the compound’s atomic structure. The least electronegative atom in greater compounds is the center atom. 
  • Assign lone pairs to the atoms. The illustration already has two N-O bonds. So six valence pairs remain.
  • Label the six valence pairs as lone pairs. Oxygen will take three lone pairs. According to the Octet Rule, atoms need to form bonds until they reach eight valence electrons. 
  • Assemble electron pairs such that each atom has at least one single bond. Form two single bonds, one for each atom. 
  • Place the remaining electrons. Move electron pairs around to establish triple or double bonds until the atom completes the octet rule. A double bond is formed when an unbonded pair from one oxygen atom is transferred to Nitrogen.

Its Properties & Structure

Its Properties & Structure

Hybridization

NO2 hybridizes with sp2. Nitrogen dioxide has two sigma bonds and a single electron. 

Because NO2 has 17 valence electrons, it is an odd-electron system. The central atom N has less charge than the central atom O.

As a result, N has a ‘+’ charge. As a result, the oxidation state is positive, and the lone electron will participate in the hybridization process. As a result, NO2 hybridization is sp2.

Molecular Geometry

According to the VSEPR theory, The molecular structure of NO2 (Nitrogen Dioxide) is bent. However, there are a few exclusions in this case. There are two bonded pairs and an unpaired electron in the Lewis structure for NO2. 

When we examine the nitrate ion NO2-, we notice that it contains two bond pairs, one lone pair of electrons. As a result, NO2 has a bond angle of around 134 degrees. Around 1.20 Å is the bond length.

Related Posts:

Polarity

A nitrogen atom has an electronegativity of 3.04, while the oxygen atom is 3.44.

This value indicates a difference in the electronegativity of the two atomic elements.

Although the distinction is fairly small, the asymmetrical bent molecular structure generates the net dipole moment, making nitrogen dioxide polar. 

Polarity

Bond Angle

The electronic form of NO2 is rather unusual. It’s more appropriately defined as a resonance hybrid of two structures, one of which includes a nitrogen atom with an odd electron. And due to the presence of an unpaired electron, Nitrogen dioxide is a free radical. The angles have been established experimentally to be 134 degrees.

MO Diagram for NO2

The Molecular Orbital Theory is a quantum mechanics hypothesis describing chemical bonding inside molecules. When you examine the electron configuration of nitrogen and oxygen atoms on the VSEPR chart, the two electrons of 1s2 in the Nitrogen atom are involved. Each of the oxygen atoms contributes two lone pairs.

The leftover electrons form the 2px, 2py, 2pz, and *2s in the p orbitals of Nitrogen and oxygen atoms. 

FAQS

The molecular geometry of NO2 is trigonal planar. A double bond links nitrogen and oxygen. For electron pair geometry, the molecule has three electron pairs. Because it has an additional electron after interacting with oxygen atoms, Nitrogen has a negative charge. But, what’s the difference between molecular geometry and electron pair geometry?

There are two lewis structures in NO2. The multiple Lewis structures are referred to as resonance structures when many Lewis structures can represent the same molecule. [2]

There are 17 valence electrons in the Lewis structure of NO2. It’s unusual for a Lewis structure to contain an odd quantity of valence electrons. Compared to the nitrite ion (nitrous acid), NO2 has unpaired electrons in its Lewis structure than the nitrite ion, while NO2 has one lone pair in the nitrogen atom.

Key Takeaways

NO2 contains three pairs of electrons surrounding the nitrogen atom for molecular structure. The one-electron allows the two connecting oxygen atoms to stretch out to a 134 angle.

We use Lewis structure (Lewis dot structure) to understand the chemical bonds, the number of lone pairs, whether double or triple bonds, and how many electrons are in NO2 molecules.

References:

  1. https://www.epa.gov/no2-pollution/basic-information-about-no2
  2. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-chemistry/chapter/formal-charge-and-resonance/
N2 Lewis Structure

N2 Lewis Structure: Full Guide (2022 Updated)

Nitrogen (N2) is an odorless, colorless, and tasteless gas that makes up most of the Earth’s atmosphere. Nitrogen is located in Period 2 Group 5 of the Periodic Table.

To know more about the Nitrogen molecule, our team spent 48 hours gathering information about the Lewis dot structure of N2.

N2 Lewis Structure: What You Need To Know

The Lewis structure of the N2 would consist of two Nitrogen atoms connected by a triple bond. The octet rule states that nitrogen atoms must link three times. The N2 molecule is diatomic, 

Each Nitrogen atom has one lone pair of electrons. Nitrogen has five valence electrons in the N2 electron dot structure, classified as a group 5 on the periodic table. Align the two Nitrogens and then sandwich two valence electrons between them to make a chemical bond. There will be no center atom in the Lewis structure since both atoms have the same electronegativity. 

Since there is no center atom, begin to label atoms with lone pairs. There are four more lone pairs to the label on nitrogen atoms in total. On each nitrogen atom, take note of any remaining lone pairs. One nitrogen atom will take three lone pairs, and the remaining one will take one lone pair. 

N2 Lewis Structure: What You Need To Know

Steps In Drawing the N2 Lewis Structure

  • To create a Lewis structure, determine first the number of valence electrons in each atom. Nitrogen has a total of ten valence electrons—five electrons on its outermost valence shell.
  • After determining the total number of valence electrons., connect the atoms between electron pairs. Because both atoms have the same electronegativity value, the structure will not contain a central atom. 
  • Arrange the ten valence electrons and assign the valence electrons to each atom. Assign valence electrons to each atom using a graphic with five dots around each atom.
  • Arrange the remaining electrons and the lone pairs around terminal atoms with other atoms. Also, check for the lone and bonded pairs. 
  • Make a covalent link between the two Nitrogen atoms by lines. One line equals a single bond. There are two valence electrons in each bond. Each atom’s octet (eight electrons) is completed by sharing three pairs of valence electrons in a bond.

Understanding Its Properties & Structure

Understanding Its Properties & Structure

N2 Polarity

N2 is a nonpolar molecule with a diatomic structure due to its linear geometrical form. As a result, two atoms have the same electronegativity and share an equal amount of charge. The molecule has a net-zero dipole moment, indicating that it is nonpolar. 

N2 Molecular Geometry

N2 creates a triple covalent bond and undergoes sp hybridization. Because each atom has a steric number of two when one triple bond and one lone pair are counted, the diatomic N2 will have a linear molecular geometry and a bond angle of 180°.

Both atoms exert equal influence on the shared bonded atoms as a diatomic molecule, resulting in the nonpolar molecule.

Related Posts:

N2 Hybridization

The nitrogen atom’s valence-shell electron configuration is 2s2 2px1 2py1 2pz1.

The arrangement causes N2 sp hybridization.

Three half-filled 2p orbitals exist in the valence shell of the nitrogen atom. 

The sp-orbitals of both Nitrogen atoms overlap to create a connection.

The two p-orbitals on each atom, each having one valence electron, form a connection—the next head-to-head overlapping of p-orbitals yields one additional bond.

N2 Hybridization

N2 Bond Angle

Nitrogen is a nonpolar molecule with 180-degree bond angles. Both atoms exert equal impact on the shared bonded electrons as a linear diatomic molecule, resulting in the nonpolar molecule.

N2 Molecular Orbital Diagram

Each molecule has its electron configuration consisting of a sigma bond and a pi bond, known as molecular orbitals. The molecular orbital theory determines the stability order, magnetic nature, and the number of bonds in a molecule. The configuration of N2 is 1S2, *1S2, 2S2, *2S2, 2Px2, 2Py2, 2Pz1, according to the energy level diagram.

FAQS

Nitrogen possesses five valence electrons in its outermost shell; it needs three more valence electrons to complete the octet. A nitrogen atom can complete its octet by sharing three valence electrons with another nitrogen atom, resulting in triple bonds. [1]

No, N2 does not have a double bond structure. A triple bond exists between two Nitrogen atoms in the N2 Lewis structure. Each bond consists of electron pairs from each connected N atom.

There are six binding electrons in the Lewis structure of N2. This bond connects the two N atoms that comprise one sigma and two π bonds. This bond is made up of two electrons that are shared.

Key Takeaways

In the Lewis structure of Nitrogen, there is a triple bond between nitrogen atoms. According to the octet rule, nitrogen atoms must connect three times. The molecule N2 is diatomic, meaning it is made up of two atoms of the same element. [2]

We use Lewis’s structure to explain the chemical bonding that exists between the atoms present in Nitrogen as well as the placement of the valence shell electrons. Lewis’s structure uses a chemical symbol to represent the location of an atom in a molecular model.

References:

  1. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/introchem/chapter/double-and-triple-covalent-bonds/
  2. https://www.britannica.com/science/nitrogen/Properties-and-reaction
BF3 Lewis Structure

Boron Trifluoride (BF3) Lewis Structure, Hybridization & Shape

BF3 is an inorganic compound with an interesting behavior in every state of matter. It can be in a liquid state, highly soluble, but it can also be toxic when in a gaseous state as it creates white fumes in moist air.

Let us learn more about BF3, its molecular geometry, hybridization, bond angle, and how to draw the best Lewis Structure for it.

BF3 Lewis Structure: What You Need To Know

We need to know how to draw the Lewis Structure of Boron Trifluoride to find out the arrangement of the electrons in both molecules present.

will start with the periodic table and get the atomic number of Boron and Fluorine to calculate how many valence electrons are present in the chemical compound.

The computation will also present how these electrons bond (single bond or not) and the lone pairs if there are any created.

You will see how it violates the Octet Rule while drawing Lewis Structure.

bf3

Understanding Its Properties & Structure

Understanding Its Properties & Structure

Hybridization

Hybridization in pairs of electrons happens when you combine atomic orbitals and new hybrid orbitals. It will be explaining the bonding properties of the nucleus and its molecular geometry in the Lewis Structure.

BF3 has SP2 hybridization since Boron (1) requires one π (pi) bond to double bond, but it only formed three σ bonds per atom. Orbitals S- and P- in the outer shell of Boron mix to create another three SP2 equivalent hybrid orbitals.

Molecular Geometry

BF3 has fluorine atoms at the top of the equilateral triangle formed with Boron atoms. Thus, its molecular geometry is Trigonal Planar. You will see three atoms that single bond with the central atom. These are three BF bonds at 120o and in the same plane. You will not see three lone pairs in BF3 since all three electrons bonded with the Boron atom.

Also Read: BrF3 Molecular Geometry

Bond Angle

The polarity or non-polarity of a molecule depends highly on its structure and shape.

The bond angles of the electrons determine these. BF3 has a bond angle of 120°, with all atoms aligned in one plane. 

A fluorine atom is positioned at 120°, which is bonded with the center atom Boron in the Lewis Structure.

Based on the chemistry and VSEPR model, this is the best Lewis Structure formed with the single attachments to the central molecule.

Bond Angle

Polarity

You can determine the polarity of the molecule with its electronegativity. In the case of Boron and Fluorine, their 0.5 electronegativities are categorized as nonpolar. If we look at the symmetrical structure and the geometry of BF3, it will result in a zero molecular dipole moment, which makes it nonpolar. Regardless of the Lewis Structures or Lewis base pairs of electrons, BF3 is nonpolar. 

Related Posts:

Drawing The Lewis Structure of BF3

In BF3, Boron is the least electronegative atom and will be used as the central atom. The Lewis Dot Structure will show you one Boron atom with three electrons in its last shell and three Fluorine atoms with seven electrons in its last shell. The computation will end with 24 total valence electrons, forming three B F bonds. 

Boron – 2, 3

Fluorine – 2, 7

3 + 7 (3) = 24

According to the Octet, Boron requires six valence electrons around its outermost shell, while Fluorine (2) needs 8. 

6 + 8 (3) = 30

Find the difference between the total valence electrons and required electrons.

30 – 24 = 6

This time, get the number of lone pairs from the two atoms by calculating the difference between bonding pairs electrons and the number of valence electrons. 

24 – 6 = 18

Once the number of valence electrons is computed, you place B as the central atom with three single bonds with F atoms. This will form your Lewis Structure.

FAQS

No, Fluorine will not be the center atom of BF3 because it is more electromagnetic than Boron. Also, Fluorine atoms never form double bonds but only assign all atoms to zero formal charges.

BF3 does not have a lone pair because there are only six valence electrons. Plus, it disobeys the octet rule since it has the second-period covalent molecules. You will find three bonded groups, meaning it has trigonal geometry, therefore, no lone pairs.

There are six valence electrons around Boron in BF3 based on the drawing of the Lewis structure. It means that Boron’s octal is not complete, which is a very rare instance. Therefore, BR3 is considered a Lewis acid.

Key Takeaways

BF3 or Boron Trifluoride is an inorganic compound that lacks Carbon. This created no lone pairs between the Boron atom and Fluorine. It can sometimes be confusing whether BF3 is polar or nonpolar because the three Fluorine atoms have much higher electronegativity than the Boron atom. 

BF3 Lewis Structure showed the total number of B F bonds and the total number of electrons present. It also showed the center atom formed single bonds in a trigonal planar shape. Therefore, each molecule, computations, and process that produced this Lewis Structure have followed every rule set in chemistry.

References:

  1. https://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/5/boron
  2. https://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/9/fluorine
Best Stem Toys For 5 Year Olds

What’s the Best Stem Toy For 5-Year-Old Kids? Reviews & Guide

Most parents believe that teaching basic concepts of STEM is not suited for kids ages 5, but in reality, the learning curve of young children is at its critical best during this period. 

Our team spent 48 hours testing the best STEM toys for 5 year olds to help you build your budding scientists!

OUR #1 RATED

Kinetic Sand

Editor's Choice

OUR #2 RATED

Magna-Tiles 100-Piece Clear Colors Set

OUR #3 RATED

CoolToys Monkey Balance Cool Math Game

Top 10 Stem Toys For 5 Year Olds

1. Kinetic Sand

Kinetic sand is one of the most popular educational toys for children.

Unlike many STEM toys that impart textbook concepts and STEM skills, this fun learning toy focuses on hands-on learning and imaginative play.

The kinetic sand toy is a perfect gift for kids who go wild with their building skills.

The toy encourages open-ended building with their imagination as the only limit.

Editor's Choice

PROS

CONS

2. Magna-Tiles 100-Piece Clear Colors Set

This STEM toy teaches one of its core concepts — engineering!

Using the 100 pieces of magnetic tiles, kids can build structures of all shapes and sizes. 

The Magna-Tiles building kit includes magnetic pieces of various polygonal shapes that easily stick and detach, making the building process easier and so much fun!

PROS

CONS

3. CoolToys Monkey Balance Cool Math Game

Math skills are usually the hardest concepts that kids ages 5 and below must learn, but this toy surely makes it easier to teach!

This robot monkey from cool toys teaches kids about counting by acting as math manipulatives. 

Using the small monkeys, kids should match them with the number in question at the same time to balance the scales.

What a great tool to train critical thinking skills!

PROS

CONS

4. Snap Circuits Beginner

This toy from Snap Circuits Jr is true to its name, as kids can create electrical circuits by snapping the pieces together!

From making music to turning up the fan, these circuit challenges designed to train your child’s curious minds would surely do the trick!

This hands-on toy is also a fun way to ignite your child’s love for electronics.

PROS

CONS

5. 4M Kidzlabs Crystal Mining Kit

Learning STEM is about the impartation of concepts and the reinforcement of gross and fine motor skills.

Kidzlabs’ mining science kit allows a child to unearth magnificent crystals within the plaster rocks.

Unlike building kits, this STEM toy does the contrary.

We’re sure that your son loves to break stuff so let them have that fun with this toy and discover the gems underneath!

PROS

CONS

6. Shapemags Magnet Building Tiles Magnetic Blocks

If you’re looking for a Magna-Tiles alternative for your child, then this option is the closest you can get.

Develop creativity and other STEM skills like balance, engineering, and problem-solving and create the most wonderful structures!

Shapemags building kit is a great option for hands-on STEM learning in a fun and interactive manner.

PROS

CONS

7. Code & Go Robot Mouse

In this technology era, learning to code at a young age is a must-have quality.

Good thing Learning Resources offers coding robots that teach programming logic to children!

Kids can now learn basic computer science concepts minus the screen time.

From easy trails, coding challenges up to complicated labyrinths; your child is in control of everything.

PROS

CONS

8. Botley the Coding Robot

Botley is another coding robot to look out for and arguably one of the best STEM toys for teaching programming logic.

While most learning toys that teach code are standalone, Botley comes with one reversible tile-board and other peripherals to support your kids’ playtime!

The 42 included cards make an awesome board game for Botley; plus, the cool robot traces all black lines on its path so kids can also perform great science experiments with it!

PROS

CONS

9. SmartGames Castle Logix Game

Another building kit that cultivates the budding scientist and engineers in kids, Castle Logix, is a science building kit where kids build what the challenge booklet dictates.

Using pieces of different lengths, your child has to recreate the castle indicated therein.

This is a fun tool to stimulate children’s natural creativity. Plus, Castle Logix is one fun STEM toy for kids where the educational insights are learned hands-on.

PROS

CONS

10. SmartGames Color Code Puzzle Game

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math toys commonly deal with creativity and basic STEM concepts.

In contrast, this toy focuses on training color discrimination and logic in kids.

Watch them solve the 100 puzzle challenges using visual perception as they have fun learning about different colors.

This is quite the same with the STEM toys for kids offered by Fat Brain Toys, but with more variety.

PROS

CONS

Buying Guide

buying guide

Cost

Affordability is always an ideal quality for a STEM toy. When looking to purchase gifts for a Science kid, choose the ones that offer the best learning process without breaking the bank. The top 10 list above features some of the most affordable options around, so choose one that can help propel your child’s learning.

Ease of Use

Kids aged 5 are still on the verge of discovery and might need some help along the way. The best toys to get them are the ones they can operate by themselves without much parental support needed (although it is advisable for parents always to keep an eye on their kids during playtime).

Safe To Use

Children at 5 are typically aware of choking hazards, so that’s not much of an issue. However, it would be best to steer away from toys with very small parts or sharp objects that can cause any unwanted injury. It’s a good thing that most STEM toys are safe, so parents don’t have to worry much about their child’s safety.

Age Appropriate

Toys should align with the level of understanding and the level of difficulty that your kids can handle. While simple color discrimination toys like the SmartGames Color Code Puzzle might be fun and enjoyable for 5-year-olds, some children might find it extremely hard to complete a Rubik’s cube — even though both STEM toys tackle logic, visual perception, and problem-solving. 

Also Read:

Long-Lasting

Durability is one common factor that matters when choosing STEM learning toys. Not only does this ensure that the toys will last longer, but it also assures even if kids drop the toys from their clumsy hands, they won’t break easily.

Another feature you might want to consider is choosing toys that are not “one-time-use.” For example, the Kidzlabs Crystal Mining Kit is a one-time-use toy, although it is indeed effective to reel children into the world of Archaeology. If that’s not your style, then go for toys that kids can use for an indefinite period of time, like a kid-friendly microscope with extra-large eyepieces.

Beneficial

  • Increases Cognitive Development – A STEM toy should facilitate learning and your kid’s brain development.
  • Introduces The Sciences – STEM toys are called that way for a reason. Not only should they increase your child’s mental capacity but also introduce them to the key pillars of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math).
  • Hones Motor Skills & Coordination – Practicing the brain is just as important as practicing dexterity and hand-eye coordination. A STEM toy must also support this learning.
  • Provides Interactive Bonding Time – STEM instructive toys typically advocate against the screen culture. That’s why interactiveness is important because it promotes imagination. [1]
  • Creates Opportunities For Creativity – Art is a natural element of STEM, and this fact must be upheld when looking for educational toys. [2]
  • Narrows The Gender Gap – The toys should never be gender-specific, rather it should promote neutrality to invite more women and build more women scientists to participate in the STEM workforce.

FAQS

Yes, LEGOs can be considered STEM toys because they can effectively teach children about Engineering. They can also train their motor abilities, creativity, spatial reasoning, and problem-solving – all of which are instrumental for kids’ cognitive development.

Yes, STEM toys can teach kids about Math and Science. These are typically the secret messages embedded underneath the guise of a harmless toy. Toys that promote STEM are powerful because they are fun and impart critical concepts.

Our Choice for the Best Stem Toys for 5-Year-Olds Is…

STEM learning is a critical aspect that kids ages 5 should start acquiring while young. The educational value that these toys bring to the table can be carried over to adulthood.

After intensive review and deliberation, we conclude that the best STEM toy for 5-year-olds is the Kinetic Sand. Aside from inciting learning and curiosity, it also promotes open-ended play for the young ones with 10 tools and molds to use! It’s also safe to use since it’s non-toxic, hypoallergenic, and made from natural sand. 

Editor's Choice

OUR # 1 Recommendation

Kinetic Sand

Best Lab Shoes

What are the Best Laboratory Shoes For Men & Women?

Laboratory, hospitals, and clinic workers need to keep themselves safe. Not just from sickness and diseases but also from other hazards and threats within their working environment. Wearing the proper shoes will keep their feet from those mentioned harms, and it is also company policy.

To make sure you pick the right pair for your job, our team researched the best lab shoes in the market and listed them down on this roundup.

OUR #1 RATED

Crocs Unisex-Adult Bistro Clog

Editor's Choice

OUR #2 RATED

HKR Lightweight Mesh Non-Slip Work Shoes

OUR #3 RATED

Sticky Comfortable Work Shoes for Women

Top 10 Shoes For Laboratory Work

1. Crocs Unisex-Adult Bistro Clog

Crocs have a slip-on design, plus 100% synthetic materials that make it comfortable and bring structural support.

It has proper arch support and is slip-resistant.

These are easy to clean, and it also has an enclosed toe design that can save your feet from spills.

You can be sure that these laboratory shoes can keep you from physical hazards while providing comfort.

Editor's Choice

PROS

CONS

2. HKR Lightweight Mesh Non-Slip Work Shoes

HKR Lightweight Mesh Non-slip work shoes are a popular choice if you look for a comfortable shoe.

Its knit mesh fabric, both on the upper and liner parts, makes it great in a professional environment.

It has a protective toe and features high slip resistance, making it safe to use every day.

PROS

CONS

3. Sticky Comfortable Work Shoes for Women

Sticky created shoe types that would fit individuals who work on their feet for a long time.

The rubber sole provides comfort and ankle mobility. It highly absorbs shock, and it has a reliable non-slip outsole that also works in outside environments.

It is tested to withstand protruding objects and impacts from sharp materials.

PROS

CONS

4. Dansko Women's Professional Clog

Dansko has created pairs of comfortable shoes with reliable arch support for the wearer for the entire day.

It features an instep with a padded collar for ease of use, especially when working in a lab. It also features a safety toe and a breathable PU foam footbed with temperature control.

It has breathable leather and fabric uppers. Shock absorption is very similar to athletic footwear.

Plus, it also reduces foot fatigue because of its rocker bottom.

PROS

CONS

5. Clarks Women's Cheyn Madi Slip-On Loafer

Clarks has been around since 1825, so there are no questions about their shoe-making capabilities.

They have ladies’ pumps, men’s shoes, and other types of shoes popular worldwide but can be used as a slip-on loafer in research facilities, hospitals, clinics, and laboratories. 

It is 100% leather which is great for protection, and it also features an ortholite sock liner.

It also has synthetic uppers and a sole made of synthetic material.

PROS

CONS

6. Skechers (Eldred Shoe)

Skechers is a known shoe brand that also produces reliable laboratory footwear. The Eldred Shoe, particularly, is made of 100% leather.

It has a leather upper and has memory foam insole. A good fit for laboratory work because it provides protection and comfort simultaneously. 

It also fits the dress code while giving a fancy look because of the leather Ghillie lacing system.

It is also made with a roomy toe box to give the wearer a relaxing feel when used.

PROS

CONS

7. Skechers Mens Oswald - Balder

This product from Skechers focuses more on being slip-resistant.

The rubber sole and outsole provide good ground grip.

It has a shock-absorbent footbed, and it also has ventilating ports on its medial side. It has a flexible sole that prevents heel pain. 

And it also has a safety toe feature.

The PU insole is removable for easy inside cleaning. The materials used are also good quality and waterproof.

PROS

CONS

8. Dansko XP 2.0 Clog

This is another product from Dansko, made for laboratory work and the likes.

It is made of genuine leather and has a rubber outsole, unlike other cheap upper fabric shoes that do not withstand sharp and protruding objects. 

These are made of durable genuine leather with a roomy toe box for your toes to wiggle around.

It fits the company’s dress code and is very light to wear.

It features a soft padded tongue for easier cleaning.

PROS

CONS

9. Reebok Sublite Cushion RB045 Work Boot

Reebok also made their own work boot shoe styles. It is made for lab work, hospital, and clinic settings.

It has a durable rubber outsole with a memory foam footbed that provides great contours for comfortable cushioning. 

Though these are lightweight, it still features an alloy toe cap for additional weight reduction and flexibility.

It also features an anti-fatigue rocker bottom, making it great to use as running shoes apart from research facility uniforms.

PROS

CONS

10. Avenger Work Boots

These boots are among the most trusted footwear used for laboratory work, construction, restaurant, and other environments requiring full safety and protection.

It boasts durable materials, making these shoes for work range dependable.

Its ergonomic design is also one of the features that make it well-loved.

PROS

CONS

Buying Guide

buying guide

Comfort & Support

When looking for the best shoes for laboratory work, a feature you need to look for is comfort. It should give you a relaxing feel as you step onto it. The proper cushioning and contour are necessary to provide comfort and support, especially since the wearer is bound to be on their feet for a long period. Search for those approved by APMA (American Podiatric Medical Association).

Uppers

Laboratories pose great threats because of chemicals (1) that can spill or are already on the floor. Wearing closed-style shoes with a leather or synthetic upper is a necessity. Find uppers that provide breathability and comfort simultaneously and have ventilation to keep the lining of your shoes cool and dry. You can choose from canvas uppers, leather or synthetic uppers, or one with a mesh upper for as long as your company approves it. 

Slip Resistance 

Searching for the best shoes that provide excellent slip resistance is a must. You can look for a thick rubber outsole because it has a strong grip and firm traction. These should be made of premium materials guaranteed to meet ASTM standards. Search for lab shoes with an oil-safe rubber outsole, protective footwear that can withstand hazardous chemicals. 

Durability

The perfect laboratory footwear is a pair that brings structural support and something that lasts long. One with a wide heel supports the user’s weight steadily, which translates to unnecessary foot twists. It extends its lifespan and makes it durable. Also, ensure that the manufacturer is known for using quality materials. 

Materials

The product’s durability relies greatly on the materials used in creating these lab shoes. There are many dangers and chemicals on the laboratory floors. Therefore, you need to search for the one made of high-quality materials. Also, search for those tested numerous times before it is brought to the market. 

Shock Absorbency

Good lab footwear should have high shock absorbency. The force of impact that goes to your heal makes forward movement difficult. High shock absorbency will allow the kinetic energy to spread evenly in your body each time you take a step. 

Outsoles

A laboratory work shoe needs to be sturdy and comfortable, but it should protect the wearer most of all. Outsoles should be slip-resistant as laboratories are prone to have chemical and water spills. 

Protective Features

You can find many protective features in lab shoes, such as a steel toe, while others have alloy protective or composite toe. Others have an open-cell polyurethane footbed or memory foam footbed. While some features electrical shocks and chemical hazards protection. 

Cost

The cost of the laboratory shoes would depend on the materials used. While you need comfort with shoes for laboratory work that athletic shoe types provide, this comfort decreases in time and costs higher than those that durable rubber outsole.

Also Read:

FAQS

Lab technicians wear non-porous shoes with water and bloodborne pathogen resistance. It should also be closed-toe and closed-heel with a chemical-resistant sole. The best shoes for laboratory and other modern working environments should also have a chemical resistant layer and are made of electrical hazard safe materials.

You should never wear an open-toe or shoes with open-heels when doing laboratory work. Examples of these are flip-flops, clogs, and sandals. Avoiding uncomfortable high-heeled shoes is advisable.

You can wear sneakers to the lab, provided that these are lab sneakers not made of cloth or mesh materials. Laboratory work is prone to chemical spills, and sneakers may provide great comfort, but it has limited protection.

And The #1 Lab Shoes Are...

Our number 1 lab shoes are Crocs Unisex-Adult Bistro Clog. Most of these products on the lists are made to protect the wearer, but we considered how these are made extra-safe caused us to decide to place them on the top. The electrical hazard safe materials and having slip resistance design made it perfect for laboratory work and the likes. 

Quality and comfort are also what Crocs boasts about, apart from its stylish designs. This is a laboratory work shoe, but regular individuals wear shoes like these to ensure their everyday safety.

Editor's Choice

OUR # 1 Recommendation

Crocs Unisex-Adult Bistro Clog

Electronic Geometry of H2O

Water (H2O) Molecular & Electronic Geometry of H2O

Water has a basic Lewis structure, making it one of the most basic chemical substances to comprehend. 

And now, to further know more interesting information about H2O and its electronic geometry, Lewis structure, and others, our team did some research about the structure of H2O.

Understanding the Electronic Geometry of H2O

The H2O molecule is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. It forms a bond angle of 104.5°. As a result, it is feasible to determine that it is bent in the form of an H2O molecule.

According to Lewis’s structure, a lone pair exists when all of the atom’s valence electrons are unpaired. 

The H2O molecule’s Lewis structure reveals two solitary sigma bonds between the O and H. Additionally, and these connections leave two lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen atom, which adds significantly to the H2O molecule’s tetrahedral bent geometrical configuration.

H2O

Closer Look at the H2O Structure

Closer Look at the H2O Structure

Electronic Geometry

Water is classified as tetrahedral in terms of electron-group geometry with four electron groups. The four electron groups are formed by the two solitary hydrogen bonds and the lone pairs of Oxygen. Due to lone pairs in water, its molecular structure is twisted. [1]

Molecular Geometry/Shape 

Any molecule’s molecular geometry is determined by its Lewis structure. Oxygen creates two single sigma bonds with H atoms in the H2O molecule. Then, The two lone pairs of electrons push these Hydrogen atoms on the Oxygen atom.

Due to the repulsion forces of lone pairs being greater than those of bonded pairs, the arrangement of atoms is deformed. As a result, the water molecule’s molecular geometry is angular or v-shaped.

Lewis Structure

In contrast to Hydrogen atoms, Oxygen atoms will always occupy the central atom. Put O in the middle, with H on either side. It takes one more electron to stabilize each of these Hydrogen atoms. Oxygen also requires two valence electrons to complete its octet rule.

Both Hydrogen atoms will share one valence electron to produce a stable structure. Show a single bond on both sides to demonstrate electron sharing. O and H molecules are solitary bonds in the Lewis structure of H2O.

Thus, this molecule has two lone pairs and two bonding pairs. The Lewis structure of H2O is drawn to achieve each atom’s insufficiency.

H2O Lewis Structure

Valence Electrons

The H2O molecule has an overall valence electrons count of eight valence electrons. This result was obtained by multiplying the total number of valence electrons in this molecule by the total valence electrons in the Hydrogen and Oxygen atoms.

The total number of valence electrons in a hydrogen atom is two valence electrons since there are two hydrogen atoms. By contrast, the oxygen atom forms a total of six valence electrons. As a result, the H2O molecule has a total number of eight valence electrons.

Bond Angle

For molecules with a tetrahedral geometry, the bond angle is 109°; however, when the molecular geometry of water is distorted owing to the existence of lone pairs of electrons, the bond angle decreases from 109° to 104.5°, indicating that the molecule is deformed.

Dipole Moments

Dipole moments occur when one atom is more electronegative than another, resulting in that atom tugging more firmly on the shared pair of electrons, or when one atom has a lone pair of electrons and the difference of electronegativity. [2]

One of the most common examples is the water molecule, one oxygen atom, and two hydrogen atoms.

The differences in electronegativity and lone electrons give Oxygen a partial negative charge and each hydrogen atom a partial positive charge.

H2O Dipole Moments

Polarity

Water is a polar molecule. Due to the lone pair, H2O results in a bent-shaped molecule as per VSEPR theory so that the vectors representing each bond’s dipole moment do not cancel out. They are making the water a polar molecule.

Hybridization

Each O and H atom in a water molecule has a sigma bond and no pi bonds. As previously stated, sigma bonds are the strongest type of covalent bond. When two atoms share electrons and establish bonds, hybridized orbitals arise. These orbitals aid in the prediction of the molecule’s hybridization. Here, we shall examine the hybridization of the Oxygen atom, which shares two electrons to complete its outer shell from its valence electrons with both Hydrogen atoms. 

Three 2p and one 2s orbital of Oxygen are hybridized due to lone pairs and two pairs of bonding electrons. And because four of Oxygen’s orbitals are hybridized, H2O’s hybridization is sp3.

Related Posts:

Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion Theory

Electron-Group Geometry

The H2O molecule possesses four electron groups. Hence it is classified as tetrahedral in terms of electron-group geometry. The two single bonds to Hydrogen and the lone pairs of Oxygen constitute the four-electron groups. Water’s molecular form is bent because it has lone pairs. According to the VSEPR hypothesis, electrons try to reduce repulsion. Therefore the lone pairs are close to one another. 

Molecular Geometry

The atomic number of Oxygen is 8. It possesses six valence electrons and requires more electrons for the octet rule. The atomic number of a hydrogen atom is one, and it takes one valence electron to create a duet configuration. 

Therefore, two hydrogen atoms create one single bond with the center oxygen atom. The valence shell of the oxygen atom has two electron pairs. Therefore, according to the VSEPR hypothesis, water has a v-shaped or bent shape.

FAQS

Any molecule’s molecular geometry is determined by its Lewis structure. Due to the repulsive forces between lone pairs, the molecular shape and form of the water are bent.

In water, the oxygen atom has two lone pairs. When the bond angle of the H-O-H bond is 104.5°, these two lone pairs reject the H-O bonded pairs so strongly that the molecule is in its lowest energy configuration. As a result, the water molecule is non-linear.

Water is a polar molecule. Due to the unequal distribution of electrons among the atoms and the asymmetrical form of the molecule, water molecules have two poles – a positive electric charge on the pole side of H and a negative charge on the pole side of Oxygen.

In Summary

Water is one of the elements that have a basic Lewis structure. Lewis structure helps determine the bond produced and electrons in the bond formation. The bonding pair of electrons are the electrons involved in the bond formation. Nonbonding electron pairs are those that do not participate in any bond formation.

References:

  1. https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry_Textbook_Maps/Supplemental_Modules_(Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry)/Chemical_Bonding/Lewis_Theory_of_Bonding/Geometry_of_Molecules
  2. https://study.com/academy/lesson/dipoles-dipole-moments-molecule-polarity.html
CO32- Polar or Nonpolar

Carbonate Ion (CO32) – Is It Polar or Nonpolar?

CO32- or Carbonate is a polyatomic ion. It is made of three Oxygen atoms bonded with the Central Atom, which is Carbon. These bonded atoms are polar in nature, but CO32 is nonpolar.

How did this happen? 

Let us dissect the facts and learn more about CO32-, its electronegativity, geometric shapes and charges, and its Lewis Structure to determine why we say such.

CO32: Is It Polar Or Nonpolar?

CO32- or Carbonate Ion is a Carbon Oxoanion and a base conjugate of hydrogen carbonate.

When Carbonic Acid (CO2) dissolves in water, inorganic Carbonate is formed. However, CO32- belongs to both inorganic and organic classes. 

CO32- is made of the Central atom, Carbon, and Oxygen atoms which have formed polar bonds.

Based on the Pauling scale, the charge difference between the atoms that have bonded is 0.89.

However, it has an asymmetric shape that causes the charges to be distributed evenly. Thus it is nonpolar in nature.

co32-

Closer Look at its Properties

Closer Look at its Properties

CO32- Bond Angle/Nature

To determine whether CO32- is polar or nonpolar, you need to check the periodic table to determine which bonds are present. Based on the table, the charges of Oxygen and Carbon have a difference of 0.89. If we base it on the ruling of the Pauling Scale, CO32- is polar because of the bond between the Oxygen atoms and Carbon atoms. 

CO32- Molecular Symmetry & Shape

Based on VSEPR theory, as the Oxygen atoms repel each other, it spreads away from each other in a consistent manner. The Central Carbon Atom is bonded with three Oxygen atoms in CO32, resulting in equal bond angles of 120°. This makes the structure of CO32- symmetrical in nature and has Trigonal Planar geometry or shape. 

CO32- Electronegativity

You can find two elements in Carbonate (1), Carbon and Oxygen. Oxygen has an electronegativity value of 3.44, while Carbon only has 2.55. Since we follow the common procedure in choosing the central atom, the one with the least electronegativity will be considered the Central Atom. Therefore, the Central Atom of Carbonate Ion is Carbon. 

CO32- Negative 2 Charge

The nature of CO32- is symmetrical, which means its polar bonds are evenly distributed. This also means that it has zero net dipole moment because of induced charges but has canceled out. Basing it on the dipoles in opposite directions would show that CO32- contains a negative two charge. 

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CO32- Net Dipole Moment

Based on processes, dipole moments refers to the electrons distributed among the bonded atoms. Dipole moment exists if there is a difference between the electrons with polar and nonpolar bonds, which concludes that polar molecules have net di[pole moment. Carbonate, Carbon electrons, and Oxygen electrons were distributed evenly, making it planar. Therefore, it has no net dipole moment.  

CO32- Molecular Geometry

With Carbonate, we use the AXn notation.

A= Central Atom

X= number of atoms around the Central Atom

n= number of bonds that are attached to the Central Atom

Ex= the number of lone pairs of the central atom

If we compute for the Molecular Geometry of Carbonate

A= Carbon atom,

X= Oxygen atom,

n= 3,

Ex= 0.

We will reach the notation AX3.

Using the VSEPR chart, AX3 notation in CO32- shows a Trigonal Planar with a bond angle of approximately 120°.

CO32- Hybridization

Atomic Orbital has a special function in an atom’s quantum mechanics and theory. When chemical bonding occurs, AOs combine and create bonds inside the molecule and form hybridized orbitals. 

In the Lewis Structure of CO32, a single O atom bond has a negative charge while the double-bonded ones have no charge value. You will see three sigmas and one pi around the central C atom. 

The formula below shows how to compute the Hybridization value.

V = 4, M = 0, C = 0, A = 2.

H = 0.5 ( 4 + 0 – 0 + 2 ) = 3.

CO3-2 Hybridization

CO32- Lewis Structure

To develop the Lewis Structure of CO32-, we follow the steps and draw an appropriate CO32- diagram. 

Step 1: Find out the total Valence Electron present (based on the periodic table)

= 4 + 6*3 + 2

= 24.

Step 2: Find out the molecule’s Central atom.

Since Carbon is the least electronegative among the atoms found in Carbonate Ion, it becomes the central atom. 

Step 3: Drawing the Molecule’s Skeletal Diagram

Using dots as valence electrons around the atomic symbols, you can place the corresponding number of valence electrons around three Oxygen atoms surrounding the Central Atom, Carbon.

Step 4: The Formed Bond formation

The total Valence Electron is 24, while there are two shared electrons between Carbon and the three Oxygen atoms, which have single bonds. Therefore the Octet Rule has been fulfilled with Oxygen Atoms but not with Carbon that only has six electrons.

Step 5: Formal Charge

The formula for formal charge:

Carbon= 4 – 0.5*8 – 0 = 4 – 4 = 0.

Each O Atom Formal Charge= 6 – 0.5*2 – 6 = 6 – 1 – 6 = -1.

Each O Atom with double bond with carbon = 6 – 0.5*4 – 4 = 6 – 2 – 4 = 0.

FAQS

Carbonate ion is a covalent compound that has a negative two net charge. This is a negative ion or anion.

The bond of CO32- is polar in nature. Based on the Pauling scale, the charge difference between the atoms of Oxygen and Carbon is 0.89. Therefore, the bond is polar.

There are three lone pairs in CO32- or Carbonate. It comes from the Oxygen atom since the central atom, Carbon, does not contain lone pairs.

CO32- Polarity Result

Carbonate (CO32-) is an organic and inorganic class, making it a versatile yet complex compound. What makes CO32- more interesting is how these bonds. As CO32- ion, these are polar in nature because all three Oxygen bonds are polar. If this is the only basis, it will make Carbonate polar. 

However, these bonds have negative charges and constituents that are also evenly distributed because of their symmetric shape, causing zero net dipole moment. Because of that, by nature, CO32- ion is nonpolar.

Reference:

  1. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Carbonate#section=2D-Structure