I3 Lewis Structure

What’s the Lewis Structure of Triiodide Ion?

Three iodine atoms in a polyhalogen ion, anion, formed when the Aquarius solutions iodine and iodide salt are combined. 

To find out what the structure of a Triodide ion is, we need to get the full concept of its physical properties, shape, and hybridization. Let’s get the valence electrons and the central atom to start it off when dissecting the I3 Lewis Structure.

Triiodide Ion (I3): A Brief Description

There are three iodine molecules, hence the name Triiodide (1) or better known as I3- which is also a polyatomic ion and a negatively charged ion of -1. The given molecule has a non-reactive property towards starch which makes it useful in identification due to the identifiable blue-black color it produces. 

It also has a molecular weight of 380.7134. There are seven valence electrons found in this ion which has an exergonic balance that leads to the formation of the ions. There is a positive flow of energy on the charged molecule from the system to the environment.

Triiodide Ion (I3)

What You Need To Know

What You Need To Know

Lewis Structure 

The Lewis Structure of I3- will give you a better understanding of how the chemical bonding is completed. One of the three iodine molecules has an extra negative charge among all the atoms. Because of that, considered an extra electron, we have 3 lone pairs and 2 bond pairs that result in its steric number 5 and is number 53 on the periodic table. Also, the formal charges of the molecules should be at their lowest value.


To find out what the hybridization of I3- is, we need to use the simple formula in finding hybridization number, which is;

Number of valence electron + monovalent + (negative charge) – (positive charge)/2

In an iodine molecule, you will find seven valence electrons. There are two monovalent atoms, and the value of the net negative charge will be 1 since it has a negative charge. 

The value should be:




Since the hybridization number is 5, it makes the SP hybridization sp3d.

Molecular Geometry

Looking at the Lewis Structure of I3-, the central iodine shows 3 lone pairs with equatorial positions because of the repulsion of the valence electrons. Now, the angle of the bond became 1800 when the two iodine atoms were axially placed. The central iodide atom has a negative charge. Therefore, it makes the shape of the I3- ion symmetrical and linear. 

Molar Mass

You can calculate the mass of the molecules depending on the weight of the element. In this case, the atomic weight of iodine is 126.90447, and there are 3 atoms found in this molecule. Therefore, the molar mass of i3- is 380.713410.

Electron Geometry

One atom of the three is negatively charged, and this also gives two bond pairs and 3 lone pairs of valence electrons, making the molecular geometry linear. 

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All the values of the I3 ion are negative as it only has one electron. If a molecule has a partially positively charged end and a partially negatively charged end, then it will have polar bonds, but this is not the case for I3-, therefore, it is not polar or nonpolar. 

Bond Angle

The bond angle of I3- was formed when the two other iodine molecules bonded with I- ion. The value of this is 180 degrees celsius. Since the three molecules have seven electrons that are non-bonding, the other two iodine atoms formed the bond instead. 


The shape of I3- ion is linear and also symmetrical. The iodine molecules bonded axially in a linear fashion. There are two atoms sharing valence electrons out of three lone pairs in this molecule, and based on the VSEPR theory, I3- has three equatorial lone pairs which have also bonded to the central iodine atom.

How to Draw the Lewis Structure for I3

How to Draw the Lewis Structure for I3

When drawing Lewis Structures, we first count the valence electrons with the use of the periodic table. In the periodic table, iodine is the seventh group with the atomic number 53, and it has seven electron valence.

In this Lewis Structure, you will see three molecules with an extra electron that has a negative charge; therefore, the computation will be: 7×3+1=22 

We must follow the Octet rule, so it will be the Central Atom sharing electrons to neighbouring Iodine atoms from its eight electrons in its outermost shell, leaving six electrons that will form the non-bonding lone pairs.

The last thing to make sure is that all molecules maintain the lowest possible formal charge.

Read: C2H2 Lewis Structure


I3- is not bent because it is in a different electronic environment. It is bound to two oxygen valence electrons that cause repulsion on the outer shell since it pulls electrons on the outer orbit.

No. I3- Lewis Structures shows that this only has one negatively charged electron, and even the best Lewis structure will not show any dipole moment. I3- is not a polar molecule or a nonpolar molecule.

Key Takeaways

The I3 Lewis Structure, just like any Lewis Structures, will provide enlightenment on how to understand the structure of a molecule better. The seven valence electrons of iodine created the Triiodide ion, though this is a confusing process of chemical bonding, especially for beginners. 

We now know how to deal with transforming non-bonding molecules and always ensure that a molecule’s formal charge is kept at the lowest form. All these will be taken into consideration since we have a better understanding of how the structure works.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.


  1. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Triiodide-Ion

Is Boron Trichloride Polar or Non-polar?

Is the inorganic compound BCl3 polar or nonpolar? If shapes are the basis of polarity, then BCl3 is a polar molecule. But if you base it on BCL3’s electronegativity, then it is nonpolar.

Which answer is correct?

Let us see the shape, geometry, and all other factors about Boron Trichloride to determine its polarity or non-polarity.

Polarity or Nonpolarity of Boron Trichloride

The structure of Boron Trichloride is Trigonal Planar which forms a T and is symmetrically arranged, revealing its non-polarity.

This centrally located boron has valence electrons, responsible for balancing the three chlorines causing it to be a part of a perfectly balanced trigonal pyramidal shape (1).

The contradiction is with the B-Cl bond, which shows polarity mainly because of the electronegativity difference of Boron 2.04) and Chlorine(3.16), and all three such bonds lie at 120 degrees to each other.

BCl3​ is a planar molecular compound in which the three B – Cl molecular bonds are inclined at a bond angle of 120 degrees.

Boron Trichloride Structure

Molecular Geometry & Bond Angle

The chlorine halides are spaced symmetrically around the central boron atom. The three chlorine atoms have a negative charge, and the central atom boron in the center has a positive charge. 

Though BCl3 does not fully complete its octet, based on the ruling of Lewis Structure, even with lone pairs, it can still come up with a nonpolar molecule. It has three chlorides bonded and no lone pair making the molecular geometry trigonal planar.

Since we have the same pull in these organic compounds and no electrical dipole formed, there is no dipole moment. An important factor in helping determine a compound’s nature is its symmetrical geometry, such as carbon disulfide (CS2).

Factors That Determine Polarity

Factors That Determine Polarity


The shape after the same amount of molecules attached will become the basis, whether this is nonpolar or not. If the arrows have the same length and have a symmetrical structure, then this is nonpolar. The bond angle seen at the lewis structure will help determine the shape. 


Electronegativity is a measure of the capability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons. Electronegativity is a periodic property affecting valence electrons. The charge distribution of different atoms attached will determine the polarity or non-polarity of the molecule.

Dipole Moment

There is a separation of positive and negative charges because of the unequal attraction for the bonded valence electrons. B, boron in the periodic table, and Cl have different values in terms of electronegativities. 

Hence chlorine (E.N. = 3.00) is more electronegative than the Boron (E.N. = 2.00).

As a result, the B–Cl bond forms polar bonds and carries a finite zero dipole moment.

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If BCl3 is a Non-polar Molecule, Why Does It Form Polar Bonds?

While it is true that BCl3 is non-polar, it forms bonds because the B-Cl bond itself is not non-polar, caused by the difference in electronegativity of Boron(2.04) and Chlorine(3.16).

All three valence electrons, B-Cl bonds that are at a distance of 120 degrees from each other, the chemical bond still cancels out, making the net dipole moment zero.

Why Does BCl3 Have Covalent Bonds?

Why does BCl3 have covalent bonds?

Boron trichloride or BCl3 is a combination of two atoms boron and chlorine. B atoms and Cl atoms are both nonmetals making them covalent compounds.

As B electrons in BCl3 undergo sp2 hybridization, the resultant shape is trigonal planar. B and Cl form polar covalent bonds, but three other covalent bonds have the same bond moments. Thus the sum of three valence electrons comes out to be zero dipole moment in a single bond.


Boron Trichloride is a reactive gas that can serve as rocket fuel as it produces hydrogen chloride. This is not an ordinary boron atom turned chemical compound because once it is on hydrolysis with water and other alcohols, this can form hydrogen chloride.

The material used to produce elemental boron comes from bonded atoms of BCl3. Fumes from the chemical compound BCl3 can easily irritate the eyes, along with the mucous membranes. It is corrosive to metals, tissues, and considered toxic in nature.

Another use for this colorless gas is a soldering flux for aluminum, tungsten, iron, zinc, and monel metal.

Based on the Lewis theory of Acid and base, acids are chemicals accepting pairs of electrons.

Because of the electron-deficient boron, the central atom of BCl3 allowed the molecule to accept an extra pair of electrons and, hence, acts as a Lewis Acid. At room temperature, this is a colorless gas that forms fumes and has a pungent odor. Its melting point is −107.3 °C or −161.1 °F, and the boiling point of boric acid is around 12.6 °C or 54.7 °F. This is soluble in compounds like CCl4, ethanol.

So, Is BCl3 Polar or Nonpolar?

BCl3 is a nonpolar molecule. To have a polar bond, it needs to have an asymmetrical shapeshift in electron density to form an electrical dipole, but this is not the case for BCl3. 

BCl3 is a chemical compound with an SP2 hybridization type. In BCl3, Boron as a central atom consists of three bonded chlorine atoms with no lone pair of electrons left. Also, symmetrical molecular geometry is an important factor in determining the nonpolar nature of a compound. 

The electronegativity difference also contributed to the non-polarity of BCl3.

So, is BCl3 polar or nonpolar? A science enthusiast would say, yes, it is.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.


  1. http://www.csun.edu/~hcchm001/shapes-polarity.pdf
Best Lab Goggles

What’s the Best Lab Goggles Today? Reviews & Guide

Whether you’re inside the lab, at the construction site, or doing DIY projects, we recommend using lab goggles to safeguard your eyes from unwanted elements like dust, debris, or fog. 

To help you find the best lab goggles available in the market, we gathered the top brands and their features. 


NoCry Safety Glasses


DEWALT DPG82-11C Concealer


NoCry Safety Glasses That Fit Over Your Prescription Eyewear

Top 7 Goggles for Labs

1. NoCry Safety Glasses

The NoCry Safety Glasses are one of the safety glasses that we think really works.

The design of this product is protective eyewear which can be used as lab goggles or as a piece of safety equipment.

It has polycarbonate wraparound construction making it really durable. 

It has anti-fog features, and it has a very good fit regardless of the size of the head of the wearer. What also made us believe that this is the best lab goggles is its reasonable price. These are good-quality anti-fog goggles at an affordable price.



2. DEWALT DPG82-11C Concealer

These anti-fog safety glasses are one of the trusted anti-fog safety goggles.

It has an anti-fog coating and polycarbonate lens, making it great protective glasses with a clear lens. 

It can protect your eyes from fog because of its anti-fog feature and safeguard you from chemical splashes.

It also has a dual-injected rubber design that gives a perfect fit to whatever head size, along with its adjustable elastic strap. It can give protection against dust particles or chemical splash.



3. NoCry Safety Glasses That Fit Over Your Prescription Eyewear

The dilemma of people wearing prescription eyewear who works in a lab or construction is resolved by this product.

You can wear these safety goggles over prescription glasses. This is the best lab safety goggles since it works with most prescription eyewear. 

There is no need to worry about working without clear sight during dental work or construction. These goggles also have anti-fog features. To avoid optical distortion, you simply have to leave a good gap between the safety goggle and the prescription lenses.



4. NEIKO PRO 53875B Anti-Fog Safety Goggles

These particular anti-fog safety goggles are one of the popular choices because of their durability.

It is made of a polycarbonate(1) lens that is impact-resistant and has anti-scratch coatings.

This transparent lens provides clear vision while doing DIY projects or for those working in constructions or laboratories.

The only way to protect yourself and avoid eye injuries is to put on anti-impact goggles such as this.



5. UVEX by Honeywell Stealth OTG Safety Goggles

Most of the users of these protective safety glasses are pleased with the type of eye protection it provides.

The goggles have a wraparound design that makes them really safe from flying debris and other airborne particles.

It has gap-free fit goggles that make it anti-splash from air droplets and fog-resistant.

It also has an over-the-glass design, giving the user a clearer vision even if they put it over their eye gear.



6. Tarvol - Protective Safety Glasses

Wearing protective goggles or lab goggles is an essential part of keeping yourself safe.

This product from Tarvol has a sturdy plastic material that is heavy-duty and shatter-resistant, which makes it great with construction setups and cleaning environments.

These lab goggles fit the head size well since there is an adjustable strap.



7. TR Industrial - Anti-Fog Approved Wide-Vision

The design of these safety glasses fits lab threats perfectly as these have vents that prevent liquid from getting inside the lab goggles.

Chemical reactions and spills are not much of a scare as this can protect your eyes pretty well.

Wearing lab goggles is also needed during DIY activities for your eye protection against debris and dust.



Your Guide to Buying

buying guide

Lens Quality

Polarized lenses on lab goggles are the best choices because they give clear vision and anti-glare. Suppose you choose something to put over your contact lenses, the more that you need a clear view. You should also search for lenses that work against UV light as our eyes need UV protection, especially if working outdoors. 

Broad Angle Vision

Safety glasses and lab goggles should also provide a broad angle vision and are not limited to what you see in front of you. A chemistry lab has many hazardous materials that you shouldn’t miss to avoid placing yourself in danger. 


These lab goggles provide protection, but they do not have to be an intrusion into your view. Its weight will be too much of a hassle if it is uncomfortable sitting on your nose bridge. 

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Comfort & Fit

Not all people have the same head sizes, but some manufacturers are making sure that they provide a comfortable elastic strap on their lab goggles to make it snuggly fit in your face. If the fit is not good, harmful substances may enter your eyes which will cause huge problems. 


Good standard lab goggles should be durable and made of high-standard materials. It should pass thorough research to ensure that its design is built impact resistant to protect the wearer apart from fog clogging. 


In most situations, safety lab goggles of high quality are attached to a high price tag. That follows because of the cost of its manufacture. However, some products are reasonably priced but still provide safety.


Yes, you can wear glasses under lab goggles if these are designed to be worn over them. It may compromise the fit, and its purpose of protecting the user may not be effective anymore if it is loose.

You can only remove your goggles in the lab when you are ready to leave the room. Wearing goggles inside a chemistry lab is the first on the list of safety standards that should be followed to protect yourself from accidents.

And the #1 Goggle For Laboratory Use Is...

After testing them out, we think the best lab goggles are the NoCry Safety Glasses. These safety goggles are the best lab goggles because the manufacturers made sure that they use quality, clear lens that is also anti-scratch to ensure lab safety. These lab safety goggles also have a reasonable price. 

We find it really important for a product to be consistent with its features, providing what they are promising to their customers. Apart from that, there is a warranty on their products, which may have limitations but are reasonable, making us decide that this is fit for the top spot.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.

OUR # 1 Recommendation

NoCry Safety Glasses

Best Periodic Table Poster

What’s the Best Periodic Table of Elements Poster? Reviews & Guide

So you think every periodic table poster is the same? Hmm, not really. The content may have similarities, but we are more than definite that there is one that excels. After all, an ideal periodic table of elements poster should include updated information. 

We came up with the best posters available in the market today to give you the chance to learn and enjoy science at the same time.


Palace Learning Store Periodic Table of Elements


2021 The Periodic Table of Elements Vinyl Poster


Painless Learning Periodic Table Placemat

Top 10 Periodic Table Posters

1. Palace Learning Store Periodic Table of Elements

“Not just the color but the durability.” The manufacturer should be using this tagline. 

The periodic table poster contains all the chemical elements and all the necessary information.

The poster went through a 3 Mil lamination, which protects it from rips and stains. 

Kids are bound to tear papers, but as we mentioned, durability!

This poster is 18″ x 24″ and can be hung with or without a frame.

One part of it that we like is the images representing each element and how these are in real life.



2. 2021 The Periodic Table of Elements Vinyl Poster

Bigtime Signs 2020 Black Periodic Table of Elements is probably the most extensive periodic table of elements we ever saw. 

These posters are best at school as a guide for teachers because of their bigtime signs. 

The material used is vinyl which makes it more durable.

The table is also ready for hanging since there are four holes on all corners to make it easy to hang or display on your child’s room wall once you take it out of the box.

It is updated with all the 118 elements in black background that make the elements visible.



3. Painless Learning Periodic Table Placemat

Like what the brand says, it will be painless learning if you use this periodic table poster. 

It contains all elements, atomic weights, valence configuration, crystal structure, electron configuration, and many more.

This periodic table of elements is made of polyester, making it a good placemat, while the answers to their questions are visible.

Not that tearable, and kids will have fun using these posters. 

These posters can be on the wall or the table with the dimensions of 17.5 x 0.03 x 12 inches.



4. Graphic Education Periodic Table of Elements Vinyl Poster

This periodic table poster from Graphic Education Is one of the preferred visual materials by students and teachers. 

The data included on this periodic table includes element name and symbol, atomic number, type color-coded, state, IUPAC and traditional group names, and electronegativity values. 

This is waterproof, UV resistant, and offers consistent visibility against any light source.

It is worth the money you spend since it is durable and made of plastic(1) vinyl.



5. Periodic Table Science Poster

Young N Refined created simple yet handy periodic table posters. 

The periodic table of elements is great for tutors, parents, and students to learn about elements and everything else about science. 

Teachers can also use the chart as a resource during discussions.

All the elements are color-coded according to the general type of substance that element falls under, and this is classified into ten groups.

This is made of plastic, and the illustrations are in vibrant colors. This is also tear-resistant as this is a 3 Mil laminated poster.



6. Motivation Without Borders Periodic Table

This periodic table is another interesting product. It is two-sided and shows two different levels of information on each of the elements. 

One side has bright colors and has pictures to represent each one which is best for kids.

On the other hand, it has a more detailed insight into the elements with a descriptive paragraph or word form, while the opposite side has explanations.

It is designed with vibrant colors and in bigtime signs as well. 

The poster is high-quality materials, printed on thick, high quality, durable poster board, and protected with a heavy-duty finish.



7. Laminated Illustrated Periodic Table of the Elements

What makes this periodic table of elements interesting is the design on a black space-like background. 

Not the usual wherein the manufacturers are using the white color.

The illustrations are of high quality and show the element, including the scientist who discovered or made the element.

It features all 118 currently discovered elements as well as different diagrams and charts. 

This is also well laminated to ensure that it lasts long. 

The representation of a product is essential so that the student’s focus will be on what the teacher points at and get an answer over the course of time.



8. Chalkboard Periodic Table of Elements

The unique design is not the usual design you see on a periodic table poster.

Instead of the usual lively colors and pictures that catch the eyes, this is more similar to a chalkboard.

One benefit of this design is the organized look. It does not appear cluttered and too crowded because of the pictures, words, and colors.

The background is in old black finish, and the bright white ink is used for the elements to represent resolute learning.

The size of this life chem periodic table is 54″ x 36″; therefore, you can be sure you will see the information you are looking for



9. Spitegru Laminated Periodic Table of Elements Science Poster

This periodic table of elements is one of the eye-catching products available in the market. 

It features smart designs that use every part of the poster to show all necessary periodic table information. 

Kids will have a good time learning all about elements, their use in the real world, and how these existed.

A child will enjoy learning about symbols, names, atomic weight and number, properties, state, human body, real-world iconic entity, and its use.



10. Periodic Table (Usborne Book and Jigsaw)

This is different compared to the rest of the periodic table in the list. Instead of the poster form, this is a puzzle. 

It is made up of a 300 piece jigsaw set.

Kids will have a great time discovering the 118 elements and their uses in the real world.

They will know what the smelly ones are, explosive and radioactive, and a lot more.

It also includes links to websites with videos and activities to find out more.



Factors To Consider Before Buying



Since the intent is to find a periodic table of elements for children, you would need something that will contain chemical elements and colors that will entice them to use it. 

Children are drawn to brightly colored charts and posters most of the time. 

Young children are not yet interested in specific color combinations and designs. As long as they are familiar with the shade they see, their focus will stick to it.


It would help if you had a periodic table that appealed to make sure that the kids using the elements poster would find it entertaining and exciting. 

You can base your choice on what the child is interested in as each of these periodic tables has its designs.


It is also crucial that you check on the size of the periodic table of elements that you are planning to buy.  If you intend to stick it to the wall, you may want to choose the bigger option. 

They are printed in various sizes; therefore, you can find a poster that fits your needs.

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This is an essential factor to consider, especially if you want your child to be familiar with the chemical elements they can quickly point at.

Find something that is durable and not easily torn or damaged like paper. Teachers can use most of the choices we presented at school since they can be on the wall with a pin.


This is another factor that needs to be checked by customers. Since children at school or teachers will use these, the themes chosen should be based on their ages. Various themes are depending on the manufacturers. 

There are even posters that have three different themes available, based on contents and properties.


There are 188 elements and properties written on the table to date, and a customer should always check that information before they make a purchase.

Yes, you have an option to frame your periodic table. 

Only make sure that you get the specific size of the frame and get the measurement of the poster that you are framing.

If not, then you can leave it hanging.

And the #1 Periodic Table Poster is…

Our choice for the best periodic table poster is the Palace Learning Store Periodic Table of Elements. There are many options presented to us, but we reviewed all the factors that need consideration in choosing a chart or posters. 

The description of the elements is imperative to us that they show it precisely and clearly for the students to easily see. The design is another factor we looked at since we deal with children who lose interest in what they see right away. The completeness of the information on the table is another factor we made sure to search for. 

We think this table from Palace Learning is the best poster – you can frame it, stick it to the wall or hang it. Easy as that. A buy worth your money.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.

OUR # 1 Recommendation

Palace Learning Store Periodic Table of Elements

Best Biochemistry Textbook

What’s the Best Biochemistry Textbook Today? Reviews Here

As long as it has “Biochemistry Textbook” on the covers, that should be good enough. Hmm, not really.  Based on our experience, you can’t just pick any book you first put your hands on – especially when it comes to your Biochemistry course. 

If you want to pass with flying colors, allow us to help you look for the best Biochemistry textbook that will make you understand the course better.


Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry


Fundamentals of Biochemistry


Molecular Cell Biology

Top 10 Biochemistry Textbooks

1. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry

If you want to have clarity and complete comprehension for an introductory biochemistry course, this is the best choice you have. 

It offers a thoroughly updated survey of biochemistry enduring principles, definitive discoveries, and groundbreaking new advances with each edition based on Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry.

This book would be the seventh edition, but what Albert Lehniger started with, clear writing, careful explanations of critical concepts, helpful problem-solving support, and insightful communication of contemporary, is still being followed by the succeeding releases.

This release assures students that the authors created an extraordinary amount of exciting new findings without an overwhelming amount of extra discussion or detail.

Authored by Michael Cox and David Nelson but still following Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, this is a comprehensive book worth every penny you spend.



2. Fundamentals of Biochemistry

Highly acclaimed for discussing advances in biochemistry, this book mainly focuses on structural biology and bioinformatics. 

They provide a profound concept of a biochemical foundation rooted in chemistry to make students for the future scientific challenge.

It is crucial that a complex topic such as biochemical processes, biochemistry’s principles, and other related topics to this field of science be explained straightforwardly, with no frills.

This 5th edition assures students new pedagogy and enhanced visuals that provide a pathway for student learning.



3. Molecular Cell Biology

The author team certainly understands the dilemma of regular students who do not find general biochemistry interesting and exciting to read and learn.

They created a different approach and based it on experiments and clinical applications to entice readers. 

This is an excellent resource and a good read for medical students.

The authors emphasized experiments that define our understanding of cell biology, engaging students with the exciting breakthroughs that define the field’s history and point to its future.

The creators of this book are all world-class researchers and teachers, incorporating medically relevant examples where appropriate to help illustrate the connections between cell biology and health and human disease.



4. Biochemistry

The authors intend to promote understanding of biochemical concepts through highly readable chapters that consistently integrate stunning graphics with text.

Roger Miesfeld and Megan McEvoy came up with a biochemistry book that is both a learning tool for students and a teaching tool for instructors.

This assurance from them that the materials talk about fundamental concepts, biochemistry principles, and other basic functionalities are exceptionally readable explanations, stunning graphics, and rigorous content.



5. Biochemistry 006 Edition

The creation of this biochemistry textbook is based on the intention to present the beauty and usefulness of biochemistry in the everyday world.

Undergraduate students will benefit from this version as this contains a balanced and streamlined presentation since this has been updated throughout with new material and revised presentations.

Another impressive factor with this particular release is its integration with OWL, a powerful online learning system for chemistry with book-specific end-of-chapter material that engages students and improves output with their learning. 

This is absolutely essential for medical school and other science-related courses as it delves into basic chemistry and principles of biochemistry(1).



6. Netter's Essential Biochemistry

If what you are looking for is a concise textbook and can be easily understood, this can be the one you are looking for. 

Molecular-level chemistry concepts and introductory chemistry are thoroughly discussed in this book, with excellent illustrations to help you fully grasp what the subject is all about.

We appreciate that this book, despite the complication of the topics, is a straightforward approach. 

You won’t see excessive frills on details that will be very useful for a medical student. 

This current edition is a great resource for organic chemistry and its key concepts. It can be used as a review book if items are missed before.

Apart from those mentioned, you can also check your knowledge as some end-of-chapter questions and summaries help you reinforce the key concepts



7. Marks' Basic Medical Biochemistry

This is intended for medical students taking medical biochemistry. 

The core concept of using hypothetical patient vignettes is the approach used in this book. 

It shows a link BRS biochemistry to physiology, and the short “waiting room” vignettes apply the basic science of biochemistry to patient issues.

This chemistry textbook is the third edition, and there is another version to date. It still features full-color art, which helps a lot with students.

There are expanded clinical notes as well as bulleted end-of-chapter summaries. 

This third installation helps medical students comprehend the importance of the patient and bridges the gap between biochemistry, physiology, and clinical care.



8. Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry

You can tell that this textbook has been around for some time now since this is the 31st edition of Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry. 

This issue emphasizes the link between chemistry, biochemistry, and the understanding of disease states, disease pathology, and the practice of medicine.

It is delightful to read with its full-color illustrations, which help significantly in explaining the contents.

The fundamentals of biochemistry focus on this issue as this is an area wherein students must pay attention to.

This is absolutely an excellent resource for biochemistry molecular biology as this has a great introduction to it.



9. Biochemistry 9th 2019 Edition

Although the textbook is the 9th addition to the series, this remained true to the integrity of the original Stryer text.

Biochemistry books have always been consistent in delivering on-point writing, innovative graphics, coverage of the latest research techniques and advances, and a signature emphasis on physiological and relevance in medicine.

The 9th edition textbook has three focus intentions. The first is to have integrated text and media to help students visualize. 

The second is to promote practical problem-solving, and the last is to provide tools and resources for active learning.

Fact is, this textbook is designed not just for medical students but also for instructors to provide a more active environment in the classroom.



10. Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Biochemistry

Lippincott Illustrated reviews follow one rule: to provide an intuitive outline organization and boast a wealth of study aids that clarify challenging information and strengthen retention and understanding.

The biochemistry textbook is updated and revised to clarify clinical medicine and thoroughly explain what clinical information can be used in their course and everyday life.

They aspire to be one of the best biochemistry review books available in the market by improving their integrative case studies.

This review book also features full-color illustrations to enhance the understanding of every topic.



Things to Consider


Content Clarity

There must be content clarity not just with biochemistry but also with any other books and resources. 

Textbooks and other resources are used to learn about a particular subject and find out what needs to be done to function properly.


A specific topic, especially in science, much more in biochemistry, does not stop in one subject. 

Everything is intercorrelated, and a textbook that talks about chemistry, its concept, and everything around it should be explained correctly to show its relevance with each other. 

Interactive Exercises

Biochemistry textbooks are not an exciting topic to read about, not to a regular student, but interactive exercises will give the reader an easier way to grasp the concept entirely.

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Practice Tests

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PH3 Polar or Nonpolar

Phosphine – Is It Polar or Nonpolar?

PH3 is one of the most misunderstood chemical compounds due to its polarity properties that can be polar on nonpolar. Phosphine with the chemical formula PH3 is a clear, flammable gas and highly toxic compound. 

Is PH3 polar or nonpolar?

Let’s go and dive deeper into PH3 to stop the confusion.

Polarity or Nonpolarity of Phosphine or Phosphorus Trihydrate

PH3 is a polar molecule because it has a bent structure due to lone pairs of electrons and electron-electron repulsion. Phosphorus’s electronegativity is a nonpolar molecule because it is the same, but since Phosphorus has a lone pair, PH3 is a polar molecule. 

PH3 has five valence electrons and three hydrogens in Phosphorus, where the Hydrogen atom gives three electrons to the central atom P to meet the octet rule. The two valence electrons will form a negative region in pure P orbitals, while H will form a positive region. Due to uneven charge distribution, the lone pair gives a strong dipole moment of 0.58D, making the compound polar.

Polarity or Nonpolarity of PH3

Molecular Structure & Formation

Use the Lewis Structure to identify the molecular geometry of Phosphorus Trihydrate. The central atom belongs to the P atom with a lone pair of electrons and three Hydrogen below. The trigonal pyramidal shape makes the whole molecule polar.

Hydrogen and Phosphorus are not in the same group at the periodic table. PH3 has five valence electrons and three hydrogen atoms. The molecular geometry was produced due to the one lone pair of electrons, and note that this pair avoids PH3 getting hybridized

How to Determine PH3 Polarity

Geometrical Shape

Using the Lewis Structure, the molecular geometry result is due to one lone pair of PH3 remaining at a distance from the three bond pairs. The shape of PH3 is trigonal pyramidal. Trigonal pyramidal determines that the molecule PH3 is an asymmetrical structure that does not cancel out the net charge. The geometry of these molecules is not symmetrical. 


Phosphine or Phosphorus Trihydrate is one best candidate for being polar molecules that have nonpolar bonds. In one lone pair orbital with three hydrogen bonds, Hydrogen atoms and a Phosphorus atom have the same electronegativity. 

The electronegative property of PH3 found in the periodic table attracts shared pairs of valence electrons, creating covalent bonds. However, due to the unbonded electron, there will be asymmetrical charge distribution. With this, the PH3 is a polar molecule with nonpolar covalent bonds, not polar bonds. 

Dipole Moment

It is essential to identify the dipole moment of the compound. As the compound shares electrons unequally, a dipole moment occurs. When a compound creates Dipole moments, it occurs when there is a separation of charge. When atoms form polar bonds, the difference in electronegativity gives dipole. The more significant the electronegativity difference produces, the larger the moments. The distance also indicates the size of the moment, which is the same reason the compound is polar. 

In PH3’s case, the dipole moment produced is from the unshared pair that produces 0.58D, which is considered polar.

How is PH3 Used Commercially

How is PH3 Used Commercially

PH3 is a clear gas that produces a rotten fish smell [1] due to substituted Phosphine and Diposphane. PH3 is used in the production of semiconductor and plastic industries. Phosphine is an essential ingredient in manufacturing LED lights. It is used in semiconductors to introduce Phosphorus to silicon crystals and dopants for creating semiconductors. In the production of flame retardants, the flammable properties of PH3 are of great use. 

The toxic properties of PH3, although very harmful to humans in a higher period of exposure. White Phosphorus is used in the chemical processing of insecticide for grains, animal feeds, and leaf-stored products. In addition, PH3 is used as a polymerization initiator and fumigant that creates high risk when inhaled. PH3 is industrially made from white Phosphorus producing liquified ga


PH3 is a polar molecule. The geometric structure is an indicator of the compound’s polarities. Using the Lewis structure, we identified that PH3 creates a nonsymmetrical shape with a 93.5 bond angle. Due to the unbonded pair of electrons, PH3 is considered a polar molecule that creates an electronegativity difference between Hydrogen’s electrons and Phosphorus.

PH3 is basic. In Lewis Theory, the basic donate pairs of electrons while the acidic accepts it. Since PH3 has unshared pairs that can be donated, PH3 is proven to be basic.

The PH3 is formed when hot boiling water or any strong base is combined. The boiling point of PH3 is -87.7 °C, and the melting point is -132.8 °C. It is more soluble in water with 31.2 mg/100 ml solubility.

In Summary

PH3 charges on its both positive and negative regions. The covalent bond has electronegative and produces dipole moments. Using the Lewis Structure, we can identify the shape of the molecule. With this, PH3 is polar even though the bond is a nonpolar covalent.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.


  1. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Phosphine

Phosphorus Trifluoride – Polar or Nonpolar?

PF3 is an odorless and colorless chemical compound. It has slow hydrolysis compared to other chemical compounds. 

Some may still be confused if PF3 is polar or nonpolar. So today, we will cover a topic on the polarity of this molecule.

Polarity or Nonpolarity of Phosphorus Trifluoride

Molecules can either be polar or nonpolar, depending on the characteristics of the chemical compound. The Phosphorus trifluoride has Phosphorus as the central atom with three Fluorine atoms. The three atoms of Fluorine are bonded with Phosphorus leaving one lone pair of electrons completing the octet rule of the polar.

The geometrical shape of PF3 is trigonal pyramidal with an angle of 96.3 degrees. The polar molecule will result in an asymmetric shape.

The polar molecules like PF3 are affected due to the polar bonds, geometrical shape, electronegativity, and dipole moment of the molecule.

Polarity or Nonpolarity of PF3

What Are Its Properties

The chemical formula for Phosphorus Trifluoride is PF3. The polar compound is a clear and odor-free gas that reacts slowly with water. The molecular weight of PF3 is 89.96 g/mol and has a density of 3.91 g/L. The melting point of PF3 is −151.5 °C, and the boiling point is −101.8 °C. In addition to this, PF3 is moisture and oxygen-sensitive.

This polar compound is a compressed, corrosive, and acutely toxic gas [1]. The chemical compound contains gas under pressure that may explode when heated. Since it is acutely toxic, it is fatal when inhaled and may cause severe skin burns and eye damage when exposed. 

Uses of PF3

The most common use of PF3 is ligand in metal complexes. It is a molecule that binds the central atom P to form a coordination complex. With metal bonding, the PF3 is involved in the formal donation of two or more electron pairs with Lewis Bases.  

PF3 is used as a ligand with metal carbonyls wherein there is a transition of metals with carbon monoxide. Carbonyls are helpful in organic syntheses, such as hydroformylation.

How to Determine PF3 Polarity

Geometrical Shape

To identify if the compound is polar molecules, you can check the molecular geometry that it produces. The Fluorine has seven valence electrons in the outermost shell, while the Phosphorus has 5. The geometrical shape of Phosphorus trifluoride is trigonal pyramidal, so PF3 is a polar particle. 

Based on VSEPR Theory, polar molecules like PF3 are polar due to the lone pair that creates repulsion. The two atoms bond pairs that are polar will produce an asymmetrical bond angle at approximately 96.3 degrees. Nonpolar molecules have symmetric shapes, and the structure of PF3 is asymmetric, making PF3 a polar molecule.


For the electronegativity of the PF3, Fluorine has a more electronegative atom compared to Phosphorus. The two poles will gain partial negative charge and partial positive charge that nonpolar compound does not have. The more electronegative atom attracts the charge, which makes a molecule polar.  

The Fluorine atoms form 3.98 electronegativity, and Phosphorus has 2.19. To find the difference of electronegativity between Fluorine and Phosphorus, subtract the electronegativity. If the difference is higher than 0.5, the molecules are polar. Due to the difference of electronegativity of 1.88 between the molecules, the bonded atoms are polar.

Dipole Moment 

Another indicator if the compound is a polar or nonpolar molecule is by the dipole moment. The moment is directly proportional to the molecule’s polarity, so nonpolar molecules have zero dipole moment. 

The mathematical equation to calculate the moment for PF3 is D= Q+ R. Q is the magnitude of the charge, and R is the distance between the center of the negative and positive charges. The dipole moment of PF3 is 1.03D, making it a polar molecule.


Yes, PF3 has a dipole moment. PF3 does not contain hydrogen atoms, and with this, it does not have any possibility of forming oxygen and hydrogen bonds. Since PF3 has lone pairs, there will be a non-zero dipole moment which makes the compound polar. In addition to this, there will be dispersion forces between pairs of molecules resulting in a permanent dipole of polar particles

PF3 is a covalent bond. After it forms three single bonds, the P will have one lone pair that will force the attraction between the two bonded pairs. 

A molecule’s strongest bond can be by covalent or ionic bonds. The best example of ionic is sodium chloride that transfers one electron to another atom. Since there will be no transfer of electrons, Phosphorus Trifluoride has covalent bonds like Phosphorus Trichloride and Silicon Tetrafluoride.

So, Is PF3 Polar or NonPolar?

PF3 is a polar molecule. The chemical compound contains one lone pair of electrons in Phosphorus and three Fluorine atoms that create polar bonds. Phosphorus trifluoride has a trigonal pyramidal shape because of its electronegativity difference. The moment is non zero and the polar bond dipoles, so PF3 is a polar molecule. 

With these characteristics, the entire molecule is polar.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.


  1. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Phosphorus-trifluoride#section=Structures

Polarity or Nonpolarity of Xenon Tetrafluoride

The polarity of Xenon Tetrafluoride created debate with every Science enthusiast. The reason behind this is that the polarity of XeF4 can be quite confusing, as some of its properties can be polar or nonpolar. 

So, is XeF4 polar or nonpolar?

Let’s discuss the factors to correctly determine the polarity of XeF4.

Determining the Polarity or Nonpolarity of XeF4

XeF4 is a chemical compound composed of a Xenon atom and Fluorine atoms. XeF4 is widely used to degrade silicone rubber because XeF4 leaves a residue of metal impurities. There are twelve atoms in the central Xe atom, wherein the eight atoms share the four Fluorine bonds. The two lone pairs of electrons, on the other hand, are nonbonding electrons. 

The central atom Xenon is bonded chemically with four fluorine atoms creating a square planar molecular geometry [1].

Although the individual Xe-F are polar, the Xenon Tetrafluoride is a nonpolar molecule because it cancels each other, making the net dipole moment zero.

polarity or nonpolarity of XeF4

There are four Xe-F bonds, and each has individual bond dipoles with direction and magnitude. Since it creates molecules in a symmetrical shape, XeF4 is nonpolar.

Molecular Structure & Formation

The chemical compound Xenon Tetrafluoride forms when a Xenon as the central atom reacts with Fluorine atoms. When the four electrons bond with the half-filled orbitals, it is placed on either side of the atom. There will be octahedral geometry of the molecule when the hybridization of Xenon and Fluorine takes place. The Xe valence shell consists of six electrons in 5p orbital and two electrons in 5s. When the two electrons in the excited state fill the vacancies, there will be sp2d2 hybridization. 

On the other hand, the formation process of Xenon Tetrafluoride is exothermic and releases 251 kJ/mol net energy.

How to Determine Polarity

How to Determine Polarity


Xenon Tetrafluoride combines noble gas Xenon and Fluorine with the chemical equation Xe + 2 F2. To define the physical structure of XeF4, draw the Lewis Structure of the XeF4. There are a total of 36 valence electrons in XeF4. Because the central Xenon atom has two lone pairs of valence electrons of a molecule, the molecular geometry will help with the repulsion. The two pairs, which are nonbonding pairs, will be in a perpendicular plane to maintain minimal repulsion. 

In addition to this, the four Fluorine atoms will form a square planar. Since XeF4 has an electronic geometry of octahedral, the shape of the structure is symmetrical, making the XeF4 a nonpolar molecule. 


The force exerted by atoms upon chemical bonding is called electronegativity. When a bond occurs, all atoms hold their electronegativity. With this, some may have higher or lower electronegativity. 

When an atom has higher electronegativity, it can attract an electron pair from the bonding partners. The attraction also creates uneven sharing of electrons. Due to the electronegativity difference of two lone pairs, XeF4 forms polar covalent bonds with valence electrons. According to Pauli Scale, the Xe-F bond is polar because the electronegativity difference of the chemical equation is 1.4, but individual Xe – F bonds have zero dipoles. With this, the molecular polarity of XeF4 is nonpolar.

Dipole Moment

The dipole moment is one indicator if the XeF4 is a polar or nonpolar molecule. To calculate the dipole moment of the molecules, multiply the induced charge by the distance of separation of the atom. A polar molecule has a net dipole moment like Xenon Trioxide, but a nonpolar molecule like Xenon Tetrafluoride does not have a dipole moment. 

Even though the bonds between the two atoms are polar, XeF4 is considered a nonpolar molecule. The Xe-F bonds are mutually in position with each other, which creates the vector sum of dipole moment zero. With this, XeF4 proves to be a nonpolar molecule. 

Charge Build Up

If there is an accumulation of negative charges at the end of a molecule and positive charges opposite, the molecules are polar. The charge build-up results in an asymmetrical structure making the molecules polar. Since XeF4 molecular geometry has a symmetrical structure due to the bond formation and dipole moments, the molecules are nonpolar. 

Regardless of electronegativity, the formal charge of XeF4 is zero. It can be determined by assuming that the bonds are covalent, ideally even sharing the electrons.

Is Xenon Tetrafluoride Polar or NonPolar?

XeF4 is nonpolar. Using the Lewis Structure, we can identify the molecular geometry of XeF4. The lone pairs of electrons and the bond angles of all the atoms created nonpolar molecules in noble gases like Xe. The F-Xe-F bond angle is 90 degrees, and it creates a square planar shape. 

In Chemistry, when XeF4 is under high pressure and temperature, XeF4 reaches the melting point. It then converts a silicone component into a simple gaseous compound where the metal impurities dissolve. XeF4 reacts with water at 80 Celcius to give hydrogen fluoride, oxygen, and the noble gas Xenon.


  1. https://www.reference.com/science/xef4-polar-nonpolar-molecule-4ff648d05ce0f916

Is Hydrogen Cyanide Polar or Nonpolar?

Molecular geometry has become one of the most popular topics among scientists and science enthusiasts alike. The urge to discover and study the shape and characteristics of molecules and acids has sparked topics like HCN: Polar or Nonpolar? 

If you are interested in knowing more about this topic, feel free to check out this article.

Polarity or Nonpolarity of Hydrogen Cyanide

HCN, or hydrogen cyanide, is a polar molecule because there is a large electronegative difference between the N and H across the linear molecule. It consists of two polar bonds whose polarities line up in the same direction.

Thus conferring an overall partial positive charge on one end of the molecule and a partial negative on the other end. [1

The Lewis structure determines whether an entire molecule is polar or essentially nonpolar. Studies show that nonpolar molecules/nonpolar covalent bonds are symmetric. Meanwhile, polar molecules are asymmetric because they contain lone pairs of electrons on a central atom.

polarity or nonpolarity of HCN

Application of HCN

The Hydrogen Cyanide or HCN is most commonly used in the groundwork of acrylonitrile. It is used to manufacture acrylic fibers and synthetic rubbers. The HCN has ten valence electrons and is also used to produce plastics. 

Hydrogen’s electronegativity partially ionizes the cyanide anion. It is reasonably useful for various chemical reactions such as hardening steel and iron and electroplating.

What Are Its Properties?

Hydrogen Cyanide or HCN becomes a colorless liquid when placed at room temperature with an oily odor. However, it may become flammable and poisonous due to the instability of the triple bond. HCN is acidic and has a melting point of −13.29 °C or 8.08 °F. On the other hand, it has a boiling point of 26 °C or 79 °F.  

Its acidity is 9.21 PKA, and it has ten valence electrons. However, when exposed to a temperature of 25 °C, its vapor pressure becomes 100 kPa. According to Molecular Geometry, the HCN features a polarity bond of 2.98 D and has a linear molecular shape.

Factors That Determine HCN Polarity

Factors That Determine HCN Polarity
  • Geometrical Shape

Various factors could determine the polarity of a substance. To further discuss the molecular geometry of molecules, the geometrical shape of the molecule may be characterized as asymmetric or distorted. 

It contains various electronegativities bonded, and either of its ends may be slightly positive and negative. On the contrary, symmetrically shaped molecules have identically bonded elements without any unshared pairs of electrons. 

  • Electronegativity

Electronegativity is a measure of an atom’s aptitude to attract its shared electrons. According to the periodic table, electronegativity values increase as the atom moves from left to right across a period. At the same time, it also decreases as it moves down a group. 

In the Lewis dot structure of the three electron pairs of HCN, the nitrogen atom has a large electronegativity difference from the carbon atom. The hydrogen atom is becoming the negative pole. The bond formation between these atoms becomes a polar covalent bond.  

  • Dipole Moment 

This occurs when there is a separation of charge between two atoms/compounds formed in a covalent. It arises from the difference in electronegativity. 

It is also the product of charge on atoms and the distance between negative and positive charge centers. Therefore, 2.98 Debye is the dipole of the HCN molecule according to the Lewis dot structure.


HCN with ten valence electrons is a molecular bond with a linear-shaped molecule, also known as a covalent bond. It involves the sharing of electron pairs or bonding pairs resulting in a non-zero dipole.

HCN is a linear-shaped polar molecule with a single bond between H and N between the central C atom. This chemical bond has a permanent dipole moment. Since HCN contains N, which is not directly bonded to hydrogen atoms, it has dipole-dipole forces act between the electron pair of the HCN molecule.

Key Takeaways

Based on round-the-clock research, HCN is a polar bond molecule due to the large electronegativity difference across the linear molecule. It has a polarity bond of 2.98 D, ten valence electrons. It may become poisonous due to the instability of the triple bond. Since the HCN consists of two linear molecule polar bonds formed, it confers an overall partial negative charge and a slightly negative charge on both ends. 

Also, as the Lewis structure suggests, the HCN is asymmetric in molecular shifting toward the more electronegative atom, which has a partial negative charge. It also contains various electronegativities bonded, making the chemical bond polar molecule, like the two hydrogen atoms and Oxygen atom, which has a net dipole moment making.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.


  1. https://www.reference.com/science/hcn-polar-non-polar-f4c06eb4802acc63
BrF3 Molecular Geometry

Determining the Molecular Geometry of Bromine Trifluoride

Are you curious about what a molecule like BrF3 looks like without peeking inside a microscope? In Chemistry, the chemical bonds between Bromine and Fluorine create bond formation, bond angles, and hybridization. 

In this post, we will give you answers on the molecular geometry of BrF3 along with other factors to consider.

Understanding the Molecular Geometry of BrF3

Bromine and Fluorine atoms are Halogens. Because of the solid interhalogen compound of the entire molecule, the hybridization of Bromine Trifluoride can be utilized as a fluorinating agent. It is in the clear to yellow liquid form and has a strong odor [1]. The chemical formula for Bromine Trifluoride is BrF3, and it reacts in different elements except for inert gases. 

The outer shell of the Bromine molecule has seven valence electrons, and three of them bond with the three fluorine atoms. The BrF3 molecular geometry is in T-shaped or Trigonal Bipyramidal with Bromine as the central atom. The shape is affected because of the three bonded pairs of electrons and two lone pairs of electrons.


Other Factors to Consider



Because of the relatively high difference of electronegativity between the bromine atom and fluorine atoms, the bonds of the BrF3 are considered polar. Because of the presence of the two lone pairs in hybridization, the molecule’s shape is bent on certain bond angles. 

The single pairs are located in the triangle plane and cause uneven negative charge distribution on the central atom. Unlike a nonpolar molecule, BrF3 has an uneven distribution of the charge that affects the molecule’s geometry making it polar. 

Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure or electron dot structure is a diagram that represents the single pair and bonded pair of the atoms in the molecule hybridization. The single bond is shown using lines with bond angle, and the lone pairs are presented using dots. This will help understand the distribution of the electron pair and the geometry of compounds like BrF3 and CO2

For the Lewis Structure of the BrF3, identify how many valence electrons this compound has. The bond angle of bromine trifluoride is in a T-shaped form that is slightly smaller than 90 degrees for the lines. With Br as the central atom, place the 28 valence electrons around to achieve the octet fulfillment. 

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In identifying the hybridization of bromine trifluoride, take the bromine atom and check its electron configuration and D-Orbitals. The BrF3 has seven electrons in the outermost shell for hybridization. Br and F will form bonds and will have two lone pairs and three covalent bonds. 

The Br-F bonds and the hybridization value answer is 5. Fluorine does have a higher oxidative capacity, and it forces bromine to promote electrons. With this, Bromine can use the D-Orbitals for hybridization that is useful for identifying the geometry of the bond pairs. 

Molecular Orbital Diagram

The molecular orbital diagram describes the location and behavior of electrons in molecules. The molecule’s physical properties are affected due to lone pairs bond formation with valence electron pairs. This function identifies the shape of hybridization by finding the electron in its specific region when these form bonds.

The MO theory deals with the energetic and spatial property of an electron pair. It also talks about the linear combination of atomic orbitals to form molecular orbitals.


No, BrF3 is not a trigonal planar. BrF3 has single pairs at the center atom, and for a compound to be trigonal planar, the center atom should not have a lone pair. The bond angle of the BrF3 is not around 120 degrees, so technically, it is not a trigonal planar. In addition to this, trigonal planar is only bond-bond repulsion, and BrF3 is not, proving that it is a trigonal bipyramidal.

Based on VSEPR Theory, the molecular shape of BrF3 is a trigonal bipyramid. In hybridization, the two single pairs of electrons will occupy the equatorial positions. The molecules are T-shaped to minimize the repulsion between the single pairs; there will be a bent in its shape.

Final Thoughts on BrF3 Molecular Geometry

To create a perfect trigonal bipyramid, the lone pairs spreading should be greater than bonded pairs. Without looking at the microscope, we know that the chemical bonding of one Br and three F atoms produced a T-shaped or trigonal pyramidal molecule. The periodic table and other factors to consider mentioned above gave answers about the molecular geometry of the bromine trifluoride.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.


  1. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/24594