SF4 Polar or NonPolar

Sulfur Tetrafluoride – Is It Polar or Not?

Sulfur tetrafluoride is a chemical compound composed of a central atom of Sulfur and 4 Fluorine atoms. The chemical formula for this compound is SF4.  

Is SF4 polar or nonpolar? Let us all find out.

Polarity or Nonpolarity of Sulfur Tetrafluoride

Sulfur tetrafluoride is a colorless gas with a recognizable Sulfur odor [1]. The melting point of these molecules is −121.0 °C. The boiling point of these molecules is −38 °C. SF4 is helpful when preparing for the Organofluorine Compounds. 

The Sulfur tetrafluoride is a polar molecule because Fluorine is more electronegative than Sulfur. With this, the distribution of the charge is not equal, making the SF4 polar molecules.  

The molecular geometry of SF4 is in a seesaw molecular shape that can be seen when you draw the Lewis Structure. Since four Fluorine atoms are more electronegative than Sulfur atoms, there will be an uneven distribution charge. If the lone pair is odd, it is polar; while a lone pair is even, it is nonpolar. The molecule of the Sulfur tetrafluoride is polar because there is one lone pair.

sf4 lewis structure

SF4 Molecular Structure & Hybridization

The molecular structure is the atoms, ions, or groups in a molecule that is relative to one another. It also includes the number and location of chemical bonds. The molecule of SF4 consists of 34 valence electrons. The six valence electrons will come from the central atom Sulfur, and the 28 electrons will come from 4 Fluorine atoms with 7 electrons each. 

It is essential to understand the Lewis structure and the number of valence electrons present to identify the SF4 Hybridization. The central Sulfur atom will form a covalent bond with each Fluorine atom, wherein it uses eight valence electrons. The four Fluorine atoms with three lone pairs in octet will utilize the 24 valence electrons. 

In addition to this, the two electrons in the Sulfur atom will remain as one lone pair. The center Sulfur atom consists of 5 valence electrons that will form SP3d due to hybridized orbitals. There will be four single bonds in the Sulfur atom and one lone pair. With this, the number of regions of electron density is 5.

Elements That Determine SF4 Polarity

Elements That Determine SF4 Polarity

Geometrical Shape

The first element that can identify if the Sulfur Tetrafluoride is polar is by its molecular geometry. To identify this, use the Lewis Structure. The seesaw shape of this molecule is due to the lone pairs of electrons. The molecular geometry of SF4 is seesaw with an asymmetric distribution of electrons around the central atom.  

The geometry shape of SF4 is Trigonal Bipyramidal. The geometrical shape of the molecule is asymmetric because they have unequal charge distribution. With this, the Sulfur Tetrafluoride is a polar molecule.


Electronegativity is the measurement of the atom’s ability to attract shared electrons. It increases as you move from the left to right of the periodic table and decreases when you move down.

When it comes to the electronegativity of the Sulfur tetrafluoride, F is around 3.98, and S is at 2.58. While the Fluoride has a partial negative charge from the negative pole, the Sulfur atom has a partial positive pole, creating the bonds with a polar charge. 

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Dipole Moment

The dipole moment happens when there is a charge distribution. It occurs between two atoms in a covalent bond. Notice that when there are differences in electronegativity, the dipole moment arises. The larger the moment means there are more significant differences in the electronegativity of the molecules. 

To calculate the moment of the SF4, multiply the charge on atoms and the distance between positive and negative charges. The SF4 dipole moment is around 0.632 D. Since the dipole is not equal to zero, SF4 is polar.


The type of bond for SF4 is a covalent bond. The Sulfur tetrafluoride consists of 1 central atom, Sulfur, and 4 Fluorine atoms with 34 valence electrons. It forms four covalent bonds and one lone pair of electrons, as seen when using Lewis Structure. The Fluorine atom equatorial is 102 bond angle, and the Fluorine atom axial is 173 bond angle.

Yes, SF4 is a dipole. In the Lewis Structure, the unsymmetrical seesaw structure of SF4 leads to an overall dipole. Due to the two nonbonding pairs of electrons, SF4 is a dipole. In addition to this, the dipole moment of this chemical compound is not equal to zero.

Determining the Polarity or Non-polarity of SF4

The SF4 is polar, and it was determined using different elements. Drawing the Lewis Structure led us to the molecular geometry of the compound. Who would have thought that these molecules’ shape is like trigonal bipyramidal? Related questions regarding the polar molecule SF4 also gave us a lot of learning today.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.


  1. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Sulfur-tetrafluoride#section=3D-Conformer
Best Pocket Microscope

What’s the Top-Rated & Most Handy Pocket Microscope Today?

Pocket microscopes are portable microscopes that can be carried everywhere with you. Their portability has gained them fame in science, and many businesses have picked up on the trend and began to manufacture them.

We took the time to test, review, and compare the top 10 best pocket microscopes in the market today. Here you go.


Carson MicroBrite Plus


Kingmas Mini


T TAKMLY USB Microscope

Top 10 Pocket Microscopes for 2023

1. Carson MicroBrite Plus

The Carson MicroBrite Plus pocket microscope provides the most advantage for money spent. It comes in a multi-pack with two pairs of pieces in it.

They are small and lightweight, making them effortless to carry anywhere with you. The Carson MicroBrite Plus pocket microscopes also have LED illumination to assist you in scoping things more sharply.

This wireless digital microscope delivers what it’s intended to do but isn’t the most comfortable to use. It is pretty tiny, so getting to the alignment dials can get intricate.



2. Kingmas Mini

The Kingmas Mini 60x pocket-sized microscope is the most reliable, affordable microscope you can obtain.

Employing LED lighting is much more battery-saving and yields more vivid and more precise images. Kingmas pocket microscope has even combined a Jeweler’s Loupe with 10X within the ensemble.

It might take some extreme attention for such a miniature handheld microscope to have it stable when inspecting with its focusing ring.

It would make a rather lovely hobby microscope for young children or adolescent teens. It comes in a convenient faux leather container to guard the lens from marks when transported around.

Focus is flexible up to 60x magnification level, which is not bad for such a minute scope.

To utilize it, set the transparent plastic body onto what you want to observe. Then see through the eyepiece and sharpen the focus. The zoom operates by drawing/shifting the eyepiece in or out.



3. T TAKMLY USB Microscope

This microscope is a digital handheld microscope that delivers 50x to 1000x powerful magnification and does not need wires. 

It is essential that the image be observed through your mobile device, so you could directly utilize this to examine circuit boards.

The mini microscope is also suitable and most beneficial for classroom examinations.

The images are also vivid. You don’t necessitate replenishing batteries because the T TAKMLY comes with a built-in rechargeable pack, making it a superior product in the microscopic world



4. Carson MicroFlip

The Carson MicroFlip pocket microscope is robust and is from the series of Carson mini microscopes. 

It has LED light illumination, which can be turned on or off, depending on the brightness of your specimen. The microscope is highly transportable for indoor or outdoor usage.

The led pocket microscope allows a significant scale of magnification within 100x to 250x. With that level of capacity, you can observe objects not generally perceived by the natural eye with the Carson MicroFlip. 

It incorporates a pair of precision molded aspheric lenses for high precision and explicit imagery. The high magnification range gives you a distortion-free image. 

The lighted pocket microscope is also plausible to take pictures or videos with your digital device using the clip they add when you obtain the pocket microscope.

The MicroFlip™ carries a built-in UV spotlight advantageous if you’re attempting to distinguish forged currency or similar products.



5. Carson Pocket Micro

Carson Pocket Micro is a tiny, lightweight, and transportable entertainment microscope. It will also make a handy field microscope for both children and pupils in the micro-world. 

All-powerful zoom selections from 20x to 60x magnification, but to utilize it accurately must be on a level surface and straight on top of the viewing specimen, but provides superior single-hand use.

They are getting to maximum magnification, though they require pretty stable handling. The system is run by a single AA battery, which is not incorporated with the primary acquisition.

Curious kids will enjoy this miniature microscope. It’s a principal contender in mini microscopes. What’s more, the battery compartment remains secure, and the build is about the size of a smartphone.



6. Carson MicroMini

Next on our line-up of the best pocket microscopes you can currently obtain from Amazon is the Carson MicroMini. The Carson MicroMini is one of several miniature microscopes that offer great value for your bucks.

This miniature microscope is incredibly lightweight, transportable, and has a compact design. In particular, it is so tiny it has its very own keychain appendage.

There is a built-in LED light for association with the microscope, but there’s also a UV flashlight and torch for optimal illumination. Excellent as a beginner microscope for youngsters, it has 20x magnification.

The Carson MicroMini also offers a variety of frame colors: orange, green, or blue.

The magnification is bright enough to amaze you, exposing many minute aspects that are adequate to be eye-opening and inspiring. 

However, it’s simple enough for even a toddler to handle with a bit of direction, making it a great gift.



7. Carson MicroMax

The Carson MicroMax is a tiny treasure for the on-the-go science enthusiasts. Place it in any handheld pocket microscope and carry it outdoors, and it unlocks the natural light for observing breathtaking flora and fauna.

Children and even young adults will have hours of entertainment checking out all the fashion of daily objects such as human strands, money bills, coins, etc.

The Carson MicroMax, sixty to seventy times higher magnification, makes it all feasible.

The rubberized eyepieces deliver inspection relatively comfortably, along with the built-in LED light lamps to help light up the specimen.

To use it accurately, place the MicroMax level upon the viewing objective. Then modify the zoom to take it into total focus. It offers a decent focal distance.

Surveying anything when it’s not level against the specimen slides will cause the models to be unfocused and even hazy.



8. Yinama Digital Microscope

The YINAMA Digital Microscope arrives with a platform to focus on not forcing your hands to fatigue, attempting to stabilize the tool while striving to get a decent focus. 

This product allows an effortless resolution by projecting the amplified picture through your smartphone or pc screens. 

The fact that it is straightforward to set up is one reason why this is one of the best pocket microscopes in the market, and it has a reasonable price. 

It also makes it simpler to capture the specimen in copy or video forms. Whether you are attempting to investigate skin, flowers, gems, or mechanical elements, this is one purchase you would never regret.



9. Rotek Digital Microscope

The ROTEK Pocket Microscope is a fabulous runner-up to the Celestron. It operates off WIFI. We have discovered that this WIFI is best when you’re running on a PC, but it’s moderately faulty when utilizing it with your phone.

This microscope highlights a high-definition camera with a 2.0mp and 1080p resolution, which provides you a vivid view of your specimen and captures top-quality photos or videos of it.

It isn’t simple to get stuff into focus when utilizing the higher resolutions. Though the magnification power is still accurate, it doesn’t seem to be as reliable as promoted.



10. Celestron Kids Microscope

The Celestron highlights a five-element IR cut glass eyepiece method that will provide you precise and bright illustrations.

It has a broad spectrum of magnification strengths, from 20x to 200x, to help guarantee the most favorable picture achievable of your specimen.

The digital microscope utilizes a 5MP CMOS sensor to take and collect high-resolution images and videos of the everyday objects you’re investigating. 

The shutter rate varies from one second to 1/1000-second, so the camera’s focus won’t stay exposed too long and let in too abundant lighting.



Exclusive Buying Guide

buying guide

Image Quality 

It is not sufficient that a pocket microscope allows excellent magnification. It is also crucial how that amplified image would be seen with your digital microscope.


When picking the best pocket microscope for a pathologist, you’ll require a bit of attention to the magnification. A specific amount of microscopes allow quite varying magnification scales. Avoid low magnification products.


A portable microscope employing a light-emitting diode is preferred to those who use outdated illumination models as far more vivid and long-lasting.

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Portable microscopes with a zoom feature allow you to zoom out again to get your frames. Most standard microscopes have this feature. 

Control Knobs 

Some things to adjust before you can have a nice look at your materials, such as the focus and zoom. Prefer control knobs that would not obstruct your point with the daintiest modification.

Ease of Use 

Go for pocket microscopes with added ergonomic forms for better gripping or the addition of accessories to keep you from the tension of managing a steadfast hand while attempting to focus. 

Good ones use a USB cord that allows you to view the parts of a larger object for accessibility, so a USB interface is desirable. Check whether it uses AAA batteries as well.


Benjamin Martin created the first portable microscope. (1)

A pocket microscope works with its eyepiece on one point and a light at the opposite end with a small base where an article can be set for inspection. 

Some of which lack a bottom, the microscope is handled over the specimen at the precise angle for inspecting.

And the #1 Pocket Microscope is…

After hours of testing and comparing, the best pocket microscope is the Carson MicroBrite Plus. It features a powerful magnification range at 60x to 120x with its precision molded lenses. 

The unit is both lightweight and compact, making it an ideal item to bring with you during travels. 

You can observe the object through your mobile device, so you could directly examine the specimen for accessibility. It comes with a LED illumination, so you can view things with more clarity.

Overall, this powerful pocket microscope slide is an absolute must for people who constantly need to be always on the go.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.

OUR # 1 Recommendation

Carson MicroBrite Plus

Best Chemistry Set For Kids

What’s Our Recommended Chemistry Set & Kit For Kids? Top Reviews

It is never too early to start them young. If you see any inclination that your child is interested in science, then it is high time to get them the best chemistry set for kids.

Check out this list of chemistry sets we came up with, and let your kids start having fun with different experiments.


Learn & Climb Science Kit for Kids


Be Amazing! Toys Big Bag of Science Works


Playz STEM A+ Kids Chemistry Junior Experiments

Top 10 Chemistry Kits for Kids

1. Learn & Climb Science Kit for Kids

The first on our list is Learn & Climb science kit. For starters, it has 21 tasks included. 

You and your child can use this chemistry kit and start doing as many experiments together and follow the step-by-step instructions provided in the manual. 

There are online demonstrations as well where kids can watch and learn from.

Included experiments are lava lamps, creative crystals, and of course, volcano science, among others.



2. Be Amazing! Toys Big Bag of Science Works

This chemistry set will be a hit for the younger age group as they can bring along their chemistry lab set anywhere they want to conduct chemistry experiments.

They can even create a home chemistry lab with this mind-blowing science kit.

Over 65 basic experiments and activities can do and use fundamental scientific tools like test tubes, a petri dish, and pipettes.

This will allow young kids to quickly create a tornado in a bottle, garbled marbles, slime, super snow powder, and many more.



3. Playz STEM A+ Kids Chemistry Junior Experiments

The kit has STEM or Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics-inspired 32 projects your little scientist can do. 

STEM chemistry sets for kids challenge the child’s mind as they work through the detailed, easy-to-follow instruction guide

The kit fits older kids, ages eight and above, where they can do fizzy reactions tasks with adult supervision. 

This is an engaging chemistry set where kids learn various experiments such as the magic school bus and discover secret messages hidden in the instructions.



4. SNAEN Super Lab Science Kit

This fits the younger kids with age range three above since the activities featured are somehow basic but exciting.

What makes it valuable is the 30 science experiments they can do with tools like goggles, beakers, test tubes, flasks, funnels, and many more.

There are also 15 colorful scientific experiment instruction cards provided, clearly showing the steps and scientific principles that a young scientist can read through and follow.



5. Yellow Scope Foundation Chemistry Kit

This science kit is for children ages eight and above. There are 19 experiments with a journal containing instructions on how to do the scientific experiments.

All the experiments go through a scientific method using real lab equipment, including three beakers, a high-temperature thermometer, a digital timer, colored safety goggles, a chalkboard lab mat, and loads of chemical reagents.

One thing to note is the awards they got, the Parents’ Choice Gold Award, a Dr. Toy Best Educational Toys Award, and was 2016 Finalist for Toy of the Year.



6. Playz Edible Candy! Food Science STEM Chemistry Kit

This is a different type of chemistry set for kids. It still requires them to conduct experiments, but this will enhance their intuitive minds.

They will learn to make their chewy jelly candies, crystal rock candy, chocolates, lollipops, sugar test, see how everything dissolves.

This is easy to follow since instructions are clearly stated on the 56-page activities and lab guide.



7. Thames & Kosmos Chem C1000

Thames Kosmos promises professional quality equipment that helps you make the most of your chemistry experiments.

Compared with other science kits, Thames Kosmos designed this to work with household items using baking soda, sugar, honey, starch, eggs and proteins, fatty acids, and calcium.

The chemistry set from Thames Kosmos would be fantastic to do with your kids as this requires supervision from adults. 

They can use different chemicals from the periodic table, which these little scientists will enjoy.



8. Educational Insights Chemistry Lab

This set could be your kids’ first chemistry set. It provides educational insights that are very useful for their growth.

The set includes a beaker, 4 test tubes, rack, graduated cylinder, lab glasses, dropper, funnel, and stirring rod.

They can start doing chemistry activities with this set and be out in the natural world exploring



9. Ben Franklin Toys Chemistry Lab

This is going to be a handy first chemistry set if your child chooses this. 

They included real experiments and great fun at home or in the classroom.

Beginner scientists will be encouraged more with this mind-blowing science kit. 

These are not simply Ben Franklin toys. It even includes a wipe journal and a write-on-wipe-off handy checklist and action steps.



10. Crayola Colour Chemistry Lab Set

This is one of those chemistry sets you find young scientists will surely enjoy that. Since this is from Crayola, expectations should be related to colors. 

That part was not turned down since the experiments are with colorful and creative activities. 

There are 50 colorful experiments with detailed instructions. 

The children will have hands-on fun as real scientists as they complete their tasks in their chemistry lab.



What To Look For

what to look for

Instructional Material

No matter how involved you are or how interested the child is in science, getting instructional materials that work is imperative. The best chemistry tools will be useless unless these are used for experiments such as the magic school bus and other organic chemistry activities. We recommend adding a colorful periodic table poster to further stir your child’s interest. 


Scientific research does not need to be expensive. The kit includes easily bought items at a lower price, which is why they should not overprice their product.

The activities may differ, but most often than not, they are most likely, the same. 

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Tools Included

Tools like a magnifying glass, plastic cups, measuring cups should be included in a chemistry kit or any STEM toy for 5-year olds, for that matter. . These should be durable and not just shabby plastic that gets damaged right away.

Most buyers are using the kits in school that is why they are in search of something that will last longer and not a cheap product. You may also add a pocket microscope to your tools. 

Number of Experiments

Chemistry sets are exciting and fun, but the excitement will be lost if you do it multiple times. It will be fun finding out about chemical reactions(1) and inorganic chemistry or even math concepts, but these should be in multiple activities to keep the interest in science. We have the best science kits for 6-year-olds here, too. 


Absolutely. Most chemistry sets for kids have activities that need supervision and also beyond their understanding. 

Guiding your child on how to do these experiments, such as using a crystal growing kit, will enhance their love for science and their parents. However, we do have a list of chemistry sets for adults here

Chemistry is not seen by many as something easy and fun to do. 

With a chemistry kit that will give them hands-on experience on how enjoyable and simple it can be done, their views will be altered. 

Also, this will continue to encourage an already interested child as they enjoy the best chemistry kit they have.

And The # 1 Chemistry Set For Children Is…

Our best chemistry set for kids is no other than Learn & Climb Science Kit for Kids.

The Learn & Climb kids science kit is not just focusing on the use of an alcohol burner and other tools that they will be learning in the days to come but on the core values of the best chemistry student.

The kit includes what a chemistry set should contain to encourage a child to keep on doing what they are already starting with. 

Chemistry is not everyone’s favorite, but with the right tools, you are giving your child a nudge towards a bright future.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.

OUR # 1 Recommendation

Learn & Climb Science Kit for Kids

Best High School Chemistry Textbook

What’s the Best Chemistry Textbook For High School? Reviews & Guide

Every chemistry book you see could be the best high school chemistry textbook.

It all depends on the person reading it. If this is true, then all of the students will have answers to complex topics.

We do not believe that – the reason why we spent hours researching, reading, and finally rounding up the best resources for high school chemistry. Here’s what we’ve come up with.


Chemistry: Concepts and Problems


Chemistry Essentials For Dummies


Organic Chemistry For Dummies

Top 10 Chemistry Textbooks for High School

1. Chemistry: Concepts and Problems

This book is probably the best high school chemistry textbook on the market. It can be used by beginners in the field of chemistry as well as those at the college level. 

Most readers look for detailed explanations since not everyone can comprehend the contents with just a breeze through. 

The book has an interactive, self-teaching method that includes sample problems and frequent questions that increase the speed of learning and retention.

This book is a self-paced study guide that has revised Third Edition and provides a fresh, step-by-step approach to learning that requires no prerequisites.

It also includes review questions and quizzes on chemistry essentials to learn chemistry and apply it in real-life applications.

Based on the reviews of the people who used it, their views on chemistry were improved by this book.



2. Chemistry Essentials For Dummies

This chemistry textbook is a popular choice for many people who study chemistry and other sciences. 

For those studying chemistry, this is a source that provides critical calculations at the high school level and the first semester in college.

It has clear explanations on bonds and reactions to acids, bases, and the mole, get to the heart of matter and energy, and all other chemistry concepts.

The book is practically one of the best chemistry textbooks since it has thorough explanations of essential concepts in chemistry. 

You will learn about the basic concepts of chemistry and develop a strong foundation of science through explanations and real-world examples. 

This chemistry book is for students and parents helping their children and tutors that need material for science classes.



3. Organic Chemistry For Dummies

Organic chemistry(1) is not an easy course, even for those who have exceptional IQ. 

Organic Chemistry for Dummies took a different approach to it, making it easier to comprehend and based on your capability of understanding. 

What makes it different from other organic chemistry textbooks is the way it is written.

Instead of the usual confusing terminologies seen and heard during the discussion of organic chemistry, the author used easy-to-understand words and simple terms, providing insight into the language of organic chemists, the major classes of compounds, and top trouble spots.

So, if you are mastering complex chemistry concepts and want to understand organic chemistry, this is the best option for you.



4. Focus On High School Chemistry Student Textbook

This particular textbook serves as building blocks on chemistry essentials. 

Best for grades 9-12, the topics include atoms and mass, chemical bonding, chemical reactions, acids and bases, acid-base reactions, mixtures, separating mixtures, organic chemistry, polymers, DNA, RNA, and more

For those aiming to find the best chemistry textbook for beginners, this can be the one. 

The author of the book, Rebecca Keller, gives many students the chance to develop and try their experiments and learn about scientific concepts. 

There are four installations of these books, ranging from basic chemistry concepts to complex chemistry concepts.

In the first three labs, she helps them set up the problem, give learners hints, and structure the following pages to guide readers through what they might do.

In the fourth chapter, students are free to design their own labs. Some instructions and hints cover the point of the experiment.



5. Chemistry For Dummies

This particular book is pretty interesting since this is not only for high school students. Since chemistry applies to everyday lives, this can help, especially with the mole concept.

Suppose you’re confused by compounds and want to understand what is being taught in your chemistry course. 

In that case, Chemistry For Dummies will give you all the basics of matter and energy, atoms and molecules, acids and bases, and many more.

This particular release is for people who want to study chemistry and the essential concepts to help with everyday living.



6. AP Chemistry For Dummies

This product is the best high school chemistry workbook about AP chemistry that can help you prepare for an AP Chem Exam.

If you are preparing for the extensive examination in AP Chemistry., this book can prepare you with all the resources needed. 

This book is focusing mainly on chemistry concepts and problems that the college board requires.

It gives you the self-study guide and tips in increasing and optimizing your time on studying and scoring high on the exams. 

To give readers the experience firsthand, AP chemistry courses include extensive lab work as part of the standard curriculum.



7. High School Chemistry Unlocked

This book intends to provide readers with a wide range of important lessons in chemistry to increase comprehension.

You can be sure that you will be learning an introduction to chemistry and see the application of chemistry in an actual world situation. 

This particular book in chemistry concepts and problems will give you confidence in your skills. 

At the end of every chapter, you will be reviewed regarding your understanding of each subject you read, starting from atoms to alpha radiation.



8. Chemistry Workbook For Dummies with Online Practice

This can be the chemistry source in high school that you need to search for something that delves into introductory chemistry for a high school and college student. 

This is best for readers looking for high school chemistry sources that form the foundations of chemistry.

It has comprehensive coverage of topics in secondary chemistry, from matter and molecules to moles and measurements. 

Each topic has a critical concept review and full explanations for every problem to quickly get you on the right track.

What makes it extra special for those studying chemistry is the online test bank that many readers can learn. 

There are additional bonus chapter quizzes that can expound your comprehension and point out areas that need review.



9. Chemistry Made Easy

Exactly as the title says, Chemistry Made Easy – it covers the basics of chemistry in high school and delves into general chemistry and not the complex chemical reactions that you will be majoring in, in college.

Unlike most chemistry books that contain just numbers, equations, and formulas, this book includes over 300 illustrations to help you visualize what is needed to comprehend central science. 

High school students are losing their interest in general chemistry because of the complications of what other high school chemistry books present.

This gives molecules, atoms, and subatomic particles a different approach, giving learners a different view of high school chemistry.

The book can indeed be one of the best high school chemistry textbooks available on the market today.



10. Must Know High School Chemistry

The author of Must Know High School Chemistry aims to give school chemistry a more straightforward approach based on the national and state education standards and why they based the topics on it.

A school chemistry workbook typically lacks practice problems and questions, which is why most students studying chemistry end up confused with equations and formulas.

The book gives an easy-access setup that allows you to jump in and out of subjects.

Chemistry concepts and problems are easier to understand if they are simplified.

These problems, a self-teaching student, can easily comprehend with special help for more challenging chemistry subjects, including the mole, stoichiometry, and solutions.

A self-teaching guide does not need to be complex, and the authors of this chemistry book achieve this



Features To Look For


Content Structure

Since most people are not confident with chemistry essentials and are doing their best to learn chemistry, the content of the best high school chemistry textbook should be concise and well-aligned. 

The topics should have complete coverage and successions and not jumping from one topic to another unrelated subject, which will confuse the readers of the book.

High School chemistry books are to be complex, at least make it easier to learn.

Easy to Understand

Though advanced students are also reading these books and using them as guides, it is still essential that these are made easy to understand. Most buyers are having difficulties in the science of chemistry because of the complexity of the problems a self-teaching person is reading.

They need to solve problems that they are having difficulties in understanding. The clarification should be in-depth but should also be precise and straightforward.

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Practice Questions

A self-teaching guide in general chemistry and chemical reactions is basic to advanced learners, but what if the reader has difficulties in this area? 

Most readers dread a book that contains chemistry information because they do not feel confident that they are ready for tests and evaluations. 

Organic chemistry is hard to learn; what more if this is beyond chemistry essentials?

You can learn chemistry easier if these books provide you with practice problems.

Special Features

A chemistry or biochemistry workbook, especially a self-teaching guide, can be really challenging. Added features would be helpful for a better understanding of the subject. You can learn chemistry easier if the introduction is interactive or there are added features that can make learning chemistry easier.

And Our #1 High School Chemistry Textbook is...

Our number 1 choice is  Chemistry: Concepts and Problems. 

This is not only fit for high school learners but college-level students as well. 

The simplicity of the clarifications and preciseness is very beneficial for readers. This is why it is our best high school chemistry textbook. It offers complete coverage of areas to learn chemistry, such as organic chemistry, basic concepts, and other formulas and equations.

Easy access is also a significant reason why this book made it to the top of our list.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.

OUR # 1 Recommendation

Chemistry: Concepts and Problems. 


Dichloromethane – Is It Polar or Nonpolar?

Whether CH2Cl2 is polar or nonpolar is still a question of many.

Do we see any separation of any electronic charge in this compound, which led the molecule to have both positive and negative ends?

We will explain how the molecule from the periodic table changes because of molecular geometry and electronegativity.

Polarity or Nonpolarity of Dichloromethane

First, let us describe the chemical formula CH2Cl2, also known as Dichloromethane. 

It is a clear, colorless, volatile liquid with a slightly sweet odor that commonly originates from macroalgae, volcanoes, oceanic sources, and wetlands. 

This would be associated with electricity, magnetism, and electronegativity when talking about polarity in a usual scenario. 

This is not one of the usual scenarios, though. Still, Dichloromethane, also known as Methyl Chloride, develops a net dipole moment across C-Cl and C-H bonds. 

The chemical bond results in a net 1.67 D dipole moment, thus making it a polar compound.

Read: CH3OH – Polar or Not?

CH2Cl2 Molecular Structure

We look at the Lewis Structure of Dichloromethane or CH2Cl2 to determine if chemical reactions change its structure. 

Lewis structure will help us understand, based on the octet rule, the structure of a specific compound with eight electrons in its outer shell to be stable or inert. 

In the compound Dichloromethane, you will find Carbon atoms with 4 electrons, and Hydrogen atoms have 2 electrons in their neutral form. 

The two atoms need additional electrons to complete the bond formation. 

Chlorine atoms, on the other hand, have 17(seventeen) electrons distributed around their nucleus.

CH2Cl2 Molecular Structure

However, only 7 of those are valence electrons that are on the outer shell. 

Therefore, there are a total of 20 valence electrons. Out of 20 valence electrons, 8 electrons took part in the bond formation.

How to Determine CH2Cl2 Polarity

How to Determine CH2CL2 Polarity


You can also determine the polarity of a compound with its shape. If the dipole moment on each molecule does not cancel out, then that is a polar compound. 

However, a nonpolar molecule can have polar bonds within it, but the dipoles of these valence electrons get canceled by each other due to the symmetric shape of the molecules. 


The one with the partial negative charge in a polar covalent bond is the more electronegative atom. The electron distribution is more polarized, and the partial charges of these atoms become more prominent. Some electrons have lower electronegativity(1), such as the Hydrogen atom, compared to the electrons found on the chlorine atom.

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Dipole Moment

What made us say CH2Cl2 is a polar compound?

In the case of Dichloromethane, the distribution of positive and negative charges of the molecules of all the bonding atoms are as follows, Hydrogen=2.2, carbon atom =2.5, and chlorine=3.1.

Electronegativity has an unequal distribution, partly because of Hydrogen molecules, which are lower than the two bonds.

There is symmetry in the compound despite Hydrogen being less electronegative than a carbon atom, causing it not to cancel out; hence there are dipole moments in the compound.


Methylene Chloride has many uses after the bonding process of the highly volatile molecules. 

It is part of the food industry and beverage manufacturing industries as an extraction solvent. It is used in processing spices, hops extracts for beer, and other flavorings. 

It extracts chemicals from plants or foods for steroids, antibiotics, and vitamins. These are also efficient in cleaning medical equipment without causing corrosion issues.

CH2Cl2 is a covalent bond, where central carbon is hybridized, and all the four bonds in the compound are called SP3.

We can also take note that the molecular geometry of CH2Cl2 is tetrahedral with the shape trigonal pyramidal. The physical properties of CH2Cl2, the compound from the molecule bonds formed, are the following.

It has a density of 1.3226g/cm3 with a molecular weight of 84.96g/mol. Its boiling point is at 39.60C, and its melting point is -97.60C.

So, Is CH2Cl2 Polar or Non-polar?

In chemistry, the answer to the question is a definite yes because of many reasons.

Firstly, it has polar molecules shaped trigonal pyramidal. 

The second reason is that the geometry of the compound is tetrahedral, which according to chemistry, has a central carbon atom surrounded by four other atoms. 

The third is the electronegativity between C-H and C-Cl is 0.4 and 0.6, respectively.

Though a Chlorine atom is nonpolar, the polar molecule emerges after valence electrons of nonpolar molecules bond its properties.

So, it is indeed a fact that even if there are nonpolar molecules, but the bonds do not cancel, and the geometry is showing polarity, then CH2CL2 is polar.


  1. https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-electronegativity-604347
NH3 Polar Or Nonpolar

Ammonia – Is It Polar Or Nonpolar?

Is Ammonia molecule polar? Many ask, considering the chemical formula comprises two nonpolar molecules – Hydrogen molecules and Nitrogen molecules.

The Lewis structure, electron geometry, and molecular geometry of this molecule made a considerable difference to the turn of events.

For better understanding, let’s find out the answer to the question – is NH3 polar or nonpolar?

Polarity or Nonpolarity of NH3 (Ammonia)

NH3 or more commonly known as Ammonia has polar molecules. When the two atoms had chemical bonds, they are now asymmetrical molecules that have polar bonds.

NH3 or Ammonia is a colorless gas, a stable hydride formed of one atom, Nitrogen, and three hydrogen atoms. Ammonia has a pungent smell and a fertilizer content as a cleaning chemical and nitrogenous compounds.

Sources of this polar molecule are vegetable matter and nitrogenous animal waste products. 

However, during rain, a measure of small quantities of ammonia and ammonium salts are found.

Read: Is Boron Trichloride Polar?

NH3 Molecular Structure

With the help of Lewis structure, we will understand electron geometry, polarity, and other properties of both polar molecules and non-polar molecules. 

The bonding pair of electrons, or those that build bonds, create the shape of the NH3 molecules.

Before we get to the shape of Ammonia molecules, we have to find out the valence electrons that form dipole moments. 

Nitrogen has five electrons in its outer shell, which are the valence electrons, while Hydrogen atoms only have one valence electron, but in this group, we have three with a central atom. 

Therefore we multiply it by three as well, making our total valence atoms eight.

NH3 Molecular Structure

Since we now have the total valence electron to set the net dipole moment, the overall shape of NH3 is a Trigonal Pyramidal shape.

The Trigonal Pyramidal structure has a Nitrogen atom as a central atom with an asymmetrical charge distribution with three bonds and a lone pair.

Factors That Determine NH3 Polarity


As discussed, the molecular geometry of Ammonia is tetrahedral shape. The nonpolar molecule is arranged symmetrically all over the Nitrogen base.

The two nonpolar molecules formed the molecular geometry of NH3 trigonal pyramidal.

Note that the distorted shape is because of the lone pair of electrons(1), which exerts repulsive forces on the bonding pairs. Although the bond angle should be 109.5 degrees for trigonal pyramidal molecular geometry, it went down to 107 degrees because of the lone pair on the nitrogen atom.  


The electronegativity difference is the first defining factor of a covalent molecule once they distribute unequal charges. The more electronegative the atoms on these covalent bonds are, the greater the polarity, just like what we have with nitrogen atoms.

Related Posts:

Dipole Moment

Mathematically speaking, the product of the charge over the atoms and the distance between them is the dipole moment of a molecule. 

The dipole moment of N−Hbond will be from H to N. The net dipole moment of three N−H bonds will add up to 1.4 D. As we know that 1 D = 3.33564×10−34 C m.

In NH3, dipole moments are calculated around 1.46D with their asymmetrical shape of the polar molecule. These chemical compounds form polar bonds to connect their atoms and form asymmetrical molecules.

Read: Is SF4 Polar?


Yes, we can say that NH3 is a polar covalent bond. Nitrogen forms a covalent bond with three atoms to form a molecule.

You can get the difference between the N-H bond and the NH3 compound since the two are polar, even in their gaseous state. In the bond N-H, the difference in electronegativity between N- and H- atoms is a negative charge. 

And in NH3, the lone pair of electrons on the N-atom makes the form of Ammonia, triangular pyramid

Yes. Although NH3 shows dipole-dipole intermolecular forces, the highly electronegative atoms resulted in polarity. That is why NH3 is still a Hydrogen bond.

The atom bonded to them, and this polarity is categorized in its intermolecular force.

One thing to consider is that the amount of hydrogen bonding is limited since the nitrogen atom only has one lone pair.

So, Is NH3 Indeed Polar?

The answer to the question is a definite yes. 

Partial charges are unevenly dispersed all around the molecule, with the negatively charged atoms at the top part of the molecule bond.

It is a polar molecule when the constituent atoms at one end of the molecule have a net positive charge. In contrast, a net negative charge is on the other end of the molecule, such as nitrogen and hydrogen atoms.

The bent form of the polar molecule caused by the repulsion of electron-electron caused a strong partial charge. Fact is, this is even a stronger polar net dipole moment. An additional thought – there are other hydrogen bond types, but among all, NH3 is the weakest. As a result, there is a large difference in electronegativity, making Ammonia molecule colorless gases at room temperature. 

Again, NH3 is a polar molecule because it has three dipoles, and these dipoles do not cancel out each other, plus they have net dipole moments.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.


  1. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/cheminter/chapter/electron-dot-diagrams/
Best AP Chem Review Book

What’s the Best Review Book for AP Chem? Our Top List

Chemistry is a complex subject, meaning a helpful review makes a difference in the world.  Since AP Chemistry is considered one of the most challenging classes in the AP canon, it’s wise to pick up some additional resources to aid in your studying.

Here are the best AP Chem review books to purchase today!


Barron’s Test Prep


AP Chemistry Crash Course


5 Steps to a 5

Top 5 Review Books for AP Chemistry

1. Barron’s Test Prep

Written and reviewed by AP experts, the Barron’s Test Prep offers reviews specially made to cater to the most recent exams. 

The AP chemistry exam is equipped with chapter quizzes, comprehensive content review, and even full-length practice tests to get you ready for the real thing, making it one of the best AP chemistry textbooks in the market.

It’s no wonder that Barron AP chemistry has been the most well-known and trusted material provider by schools, universities, teachers, and students for over 80 years. It’s the best AP Chemistry crash for many establishments.



2. AP Chemistry Crash Course

As the name suggests, this AP Chemistry Exam review book summarizes and focuses only on the information you need to know. 

If you’re a student who’s only a week or two away from that daunting exam, this is the best AP Chemistry textbook book for you! 

The AP Chemistry Crash Course does cover all the major and minor topics students are expected to learn in an AP Chemistry class exam.

This AP chemistry crash course also features practice tests and quizzes to mimic an exam and continuously refresh your memory after a few short and straightforward review content.



3. 5 Steps to a 5

The five steps to a 5 AP Chemistry Elite Edition is one of the most popular chemistry review books on the market regarding comprehensive practice problems.

It features three complete length practice tests to simulate the real things, short daily activities to make sure you absorb the information you review daily, summarized but complete information on every page. 

It doesn’t stop there. The 5 Steps to a 5 AP Chemistry review book is also available in ebook versions so that you can study anytime and anywhere. 

There are also multiple-choice questions, diagnostic tests, and a free-response section to get you ready before the actual exam.

The 5 Steps to 5 online platform even has some video material you can use when the reading gets a bit too boring for test-taking strategies.



4. Princeton Review AP Chemistry Prep

These AP review books are Written and reviewed by Princeton professionals. This AP Chemistry review book is, to no surprise, one of the best AP Chemistry review books in the market.

It boasts seven full-length practice drills, advice and exercises on memory retention and focus, up to date to align with board standards and even advice on guessing answers logically.

You also get access to study plans, a list of fundamental equations, and more through the handy Student Tools, which are available online for your exam preparation.



5. Sterling Test Prep AP Chemistry Practice Questions

Offering 900 high-yield practice drills, the Sterling Test Prep AP Chemistry Practice Questions will get you as ready as you’ll ever be for your coming exam.

It’s one of the best AP chemistry books that offers a wide variety of tests varieties.

It was written to give you the information you need and teach you how to apply that knowledge in your exam and day-to-day life.



AP Chem Course Summary

Ap Chem course summary

It is an introduction to collegiate-level Chemistry. AP Chemistry textbook teaches and encourages students to cultivate their understanding of the subject. 

It uses inquiry-based laboratory investigations while exploring the four main big-scale ideas: proportion, scale, and quantity, properties, and atomic structure. 

Examination Summary

An AP Chemistry exam allows students to earn credits for college and is made and distributed by the College Board.

Advanced Placement exams are more often seen in the United States and Canada and are less likely to be experienced by students in other countries

Ultimate Buying Guide

buying guide

Content Structure

This parameter will be assessing the efficiency and comprehensiveness of the way the information is laid out in the book. 

Content structure is an essential factor when choosing a book, much less a review book, making the college admissions process more accessible.

Make sure to check out whether it has experimental procedures included in the course.


Look for a crash course book that fits your needs. Look for a reviewer that won’t replace the stress of AP exams with the stress of the bill. Assessing the value for money of the best AP chemistry book should be considered.

Practice Tests

It’s essential to consider the kind of practice tests the book you choose because it’s not only to test your memory and understanding but also to simulate the real thing. 

It should include chemical reactions and other tests so that you won’t get the answer wrong with the help of the crash coursebook.

Ask an older brother, friend, or schoolmate for exam tips and how they are built out. You will want to find a book that features the same, and check out if they have an AP planner app.

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Online Exams

Not all chemistry review books offer online material. However, it has been a fast-growing trend in recent years. If an online exam is essential to you or is your school’s examination method, be sure to find one with this feature when you purchase an AP review book.

When choosing a book with online practice exams, make sure that the questions have a similar feel to what you usually get at school. Again, the point of these mock exams is to simulate the real thing for your chemistry courses.

Special Features

This is an optional consideration with AP tests. Still, with the expanding number of new biochemistry books being released by thousands of publishers worldwide, most have resorted to giving extra perks or special features (like flashcards) to give them an edge over the rest. It makes your AP classes easier.


Yes. Based on the standards of the College Board, a three is considered qualified, four are well qualified, and five are extremely well qualified. (1)

Yes, exams are never made to be complicated. These are made to ensure that one has adequate knowledge in every aspect of the course. 


It covers a variety of aspects, including a multiple-choice portion and the free-response portion.

Students typically feel ready to take on AP Chemistry after finishing junior or senior high school. 

During this time, students have already had an introduction to the basics of chemistry, therefore giving the foundation needed to comprehend the next steps.

And the #1 Review Book for AP Chem is…

After hours of comparing, the best AP Chem review book goes to Barron’s Test Prep!

Not only is it made by one of the most trusted publishers, but it’s also complete with every minute detail about AP Chemistry. 

Also, the Barron’s Test Prep constantly updates every bit of information based on the board’s changes, ensuring current standards of quality are met.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.

OUR # 1 Recommendation

Barron’s Test Prep

Best USB Microscope

What’s the Best USB Microscope Today? Reviews & Buying Guide

The microscopic world becomes a lot more exciting when you have the right tools to learn and discover new things. Using the best USB microscope has propelled innovation into a new era of science and technology. 

Let this detailed buying guide provide you with an informed decision before making any purchase.


Plugable USB 2.0 Digital Microscope


Jiusion Magnification Endoscope


Celestron Digital Microscope

Top 10 USB Microscopes for 2023

1. Plugable USB 2.0 Digital Microscope

The Plugable USB 2.0 Digital Microscope is one of the best USB microscopes with a 40 to 250x magnification power. And it’s just under 50 dollars. This portable device is also easy to use as it is a plug-and-play tool that lets you take photos and videos.  

It also comes with a 2.0-megapixel camera, a standard webcam chipset, and a CMOS sensor, compatible with almost all operating systems equipped with webcam software. Furthermore, this microscope features a flexible arm that allows users to use the tool with a stand or a handheld microscope. 

It comes with four dimmable LED halo lights that you can easily adjust for brightness. Moreover, it also provides a white graduated observation pad that lets its users easily measure specimens.



2. Jiusion Magnification Endoscope

The Jiusion Magnification Endoscope is also one of the best USB microscopes that could function as a microscope, a camera, and an endoscope – all in one portable and compact package. This affordable USB microscope also comes with a sharp focus range of 1 to 90mm and 40 to 1000x magnification.

Furthermore, it can capture and record magnified specimen images using its Chrome OS camera and quick camera function. This handheld microscope can also measure microscopic specimens because of its measurement software. And lastly, it features two adjustment knobs that let its users control the focus and brightness of the camera to achieve excellent image quality.



3. Celestron Digital Microscope

The Celestron Digital Microscope is another best handheld digital USB microscope that features 20 to 200x magnification. This portable USB microscope is excellent for observing three-dimensional specimens. Furthermore, it can also capture and save high-resolution videos and photos because it has a 5-megapixel sensor. 

This digital microscope also features a superior shutter speed range, a decent quality glass objective lens, and an easy focus capability. It also comes with intuitive software that comes with specimen measurement functions and an adjustable height stand.



4. Elikliv Coin Microscope

The Elikliv Coin Microscope is another USB microscope with a 4.3 inch LCD that displays a clear picture and video. It also allows users to view all the observation results in detail, which they can quickly adjust. This USB microscope is convenient for easy, accurate observation and soldering without tiring your eyes. 

Furthermore, it comes with a 50X-1000X magnification that allows users to zoom in and see the incredible details of observations. It also comes with eight adjustable LED lights that efficiently illuminate specimens in a dark environment.



5. Koolertron USB Microscope

The Koolertron USB Microscope features a built-in 4.3-inch full-color LCD. It also comes with a continuous 10 to 600x magnification range at an affordable price. It has a 2M image sensor, providing high-resolution images and videos. 

Furthermore, it comes with a rechargeable lithium-ion battery that can last for up to two hours. It also comes with a specimen stage with a measuring scale and a durable and weighted height-adjustable stand.

You can even use a Micro SD card to save your specimen’s images and videos.



6. PalliPartners LCD Digital Microscope

The PalliPartners LCD Digital Microscope comes with a huge seven-inch LCD with 1x-1200xmagnification. It also features 1080p/720p resolution that displays a high-quality image and video resolution. 

This portable device also features a focusing wheel that lets users adjust the other objects to the lens to see better details.

Its built-in lithium battery can last up to four to five hours. And lastly, it can be used by hand without a bracket, and its screen can be tilted up to 270 degrees angle.



7. Aven Digital Handheld Microscope

The Aven Digital Handheld Microscope is another handheld USB microscope that features a 10 to 200x magnification equipped with a five-megapixel camera. This microscope captures still and high-quality pictures and a full-motion video directly to the computer. 

Furthermore, it also has a ¼-inch CMOS color image sensor and a USB output for easy connection. This is a lightweight microscope alternative perfect for classroom and field applications.



8. Dino-Lite USB Digital Microscope

The Dino-Lite USB Digital Microscope is a portable USB microscope excellent for hobbyists, students, and even professionals alike. It is equipped with a high-quality 0.3-megapixel camera and a 10 to 50 and 230x variable magnification.  

Additionally, it comes with built-in software that saves, annotates, compares, analyzes images easily and conveniently. This microscope camera also works on various devices such as laptops, tablets, computers, and smartphones.



9. eBoTrade USB Microscope

The eBoTrade USB Microscope is a digital USB microscope that features a 20x-300x magnification level.

It also comes with a five-megapixel camera that lets you capture pictures and videos.

It has built-in LED lights and comes with a professional support base.

Lastly, it is compatible with Windows XP Vista Win 7 Win 8 Win 10 Mac OS.



10. Walfront Digital USB Microscope

The Walfront Digital USB Microscope is another best USB microscope that efficiently magnifies specimens within 8mm. This microscope features a maximum of 8mm outer diameter. 

It also comes with a two-megapixel camera and an eight-LED light design that offers a good light source. This portable microscope also supports Android devices of various connectors, including micro USB cable and type-c USB connection. And lastly, its focal length can be adjusted manually.



What’s a USB Microscope Used For?

A digital USB microscope is a type of digital microscope that offers various usages, such as studying live and inorganic materials. This microscope also works like a typical web camera that lets you capture images and videos.   

These digital USB microscopes are often used in classrooms, field explorations, home laboratories, and basic research. This tool provides convenience because it is compact, lightweight, and portable. 

However, it has a fair share of limitations, such as lower magnification. With this tool, you may only study basic research but not cells, bacteria, microorganisms, viruses, and anything too small to be seen by the naked eye.

How Is It Different From Other Types of Microscopes?

Typically, digital USB microscopes are more lightweight than other models of microscopes. They are also more compact and offer the convenience of portability. Furthermore, they can be used with or without any device such as laptops or PCs. They also let you save photos and videos.  

However, like pocket microscopes, these portable instruments may have a lower magnification level than other microscopes. Therefore, they can only be used for fundamental research and for studying simple specimens. These devices can be plugged into a PC or computer through a USB connector and a USB port

Ultimate Buying Guide

buying guide

Image Quality

The image quality of the digital USB microscope should be on top of your priority list when buying the best USB microscope in the market. These types of microscopes let you save images and videos.

Therefore, it is essential to search for a microscope for pathologists that offers high resolution. Remember, it is always better to have a 12 MP USB camera than a 2MP usb microscope camera. 

Screen Size

Digital microscopes do not feature an optical viewfinder. However, they do come with a screen display on top, which allows their users to see the camera feed of the microscope. Hence, our team suggests looking for a digital USB microscope that offers at least four inches up to eight inches LCD. 


Like most standard microscopes, digital USB microscopes also offer zoom functions. Therefore, it is vital to ensure that your chosen microscope could provide a high-quality zoom function for optimal clarity. 

We suggest looking for a microscope with at least 1000x to 2000x zoom like the OMAX Biological Compound Binocular which is equipped with a Double Layer Mechanical Stage.

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The microscope’s software is also important to consider before investing in a pluggable USB digital microscope.

Typically, the microscope’s software tells you what devices it could support and could work with.   

The software also lets you use various functions such as viewing, capturing, editing, saving and sharing specimen images and videos. It is primarily compatible with Windows devices.

However, it would be better if you can find a tool that can also work with Mac or IOS devices.

microscope software


While most USB microscopes work with Windows/MAC OS, some arUSB,e somewhat challenging to pair with devices. Aside from relying just on its user manual, we also recommend testing the functionality of these microscopes before purchasing them. Some even connect with various connectors aside from USB, which may become a bonus.  

Price tag

Of course, the price tag may only become a significant problem if you are a budget buyer. However, since most digital microscopes are budget-friendly, you won’t dwell on this category as much.  Either way, if you are a wise spender, considering the price range of these devices may still become useful at some point, so it’s up to you to decide. 


The warranty often attracts potential buyers because it ensures that the device is useful up to a certain time. Furthermore, a company that offers longer warranty service reflects its confidence about its products and QC inspection, making buyers trust them more.


A USB microscope conveniently works since it is usually a plug-and-play device type. You can use this device by simply plugging it into the computer to use its function. Some USB microscopes even work without any device because they already have a screen that views the specimen from various angles.

It’s a given fact that Galileo Galilei improved upon the compound microscope design in 1609 and called it an occhiolino or “little eye.” [1] However, the early digital microscope was made by Hirox Co Ltd, a lens company in Tokyo, Japan. Later on, Keyence Corp and Leica Microsystems developed it, including the USB microscope.

And the #1 USB Microscope is...

Based on almost 24 hours of research and testing, our team’s #1 USB microscope is the Plugable USB 2.0 Digital Microscope. It comes with a 40 to 250x magnification power and a 2.0-megapixel camera. 

We particularly liked how it features a standard web camera chipset and a CMOS sensor, compatible with almost all operating systems. Furthermore, we were also able to adjust its LED halo lights easily. And lastly, its white graduated observation pad is useful as it makes us easily measure any specimen.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.

OUR # 1 Recommendation

Plugable USB 2.0 Digital Microscope

Best Scientific Calculator For Chemistry

What’s the Best Scientific Calculator For Chemistry? Our Top Picks

Most of us find Chemistry classes challenging. We think it’s helpful to buy scientific calculators, especially for those difficult calculations. However, with several Chemistry calculators available today, it’s equally challenging to choose just one. 

After literally spending 87 hours researching and testing more than 30 devices, we finally found the best scientific calculator for Chemistry classes.  




Texas Instruments TI-36X Pro


HP 35s

Top 7 Scientific Calculators for Chemistry

1. Casio FX115ESPLUS

First on the list is the Casio FX115ESPLUS scientific calculator. It’s one of the most popular products of the Casio brand.

This scientific calculator is ideal for chemistry, computer science, and engineering calculations at an affordable price. This engineering scientific calculator also provides around 280 functions. 

It also comes with more improved math functionality designed for chemistry or physics, maths, engineering, statistics, algebra, calculus, and trigonometry uses. This scientific calculator also allows at least 40 metric conversions and elements.



2. Texas Instruments TI-36X Pro

The Texas Instruments TI-36X Pro is also one of the best scientific calculators that features vast functions that solve complex calculations. 

It also provides a multi-view display, which lets students review more than one calculation simultaneously.

This high-quality chemistry calculator also comes with all types of math symbols, calculus, math expressions, and stacked fractions like a graphing calculator.



3. HP 35s

The HP35s is also a high-quality scientific calculator that is useful for professionals in various fields.

This can be used in medicine, surveying science, and engineering.

This model also features an excellent battery life that can last up to more than nine months.

Moreover, it has a display contrast feature making it easier to use indoors and outdoors.



4. Helect

The Helect is a professional-grade scientific calculator that provides at least 240 scientific functions.

It also easily handles one and two-variable statistical calculations, angle modes, and scientific/engineering notation modes.

It has a 12-digit widescreen and a two-line HD display.

It has responsive buttons, a comfortable grip, clear number, and scratch-proof function.



5. Texas Instruments TI-34

Texas Instruments TI-34 is another scientific calculator that allows its students to enter more than one calculation.

Students can also explore patterns and compare results, all on the same screen.

This calculator has a MathPrint mode where they can enter and view calculations in standard Math.



6. Texas Instruments TI-30Xa

Sixth on the list is the Texas Instruments TI-30Xa scientific calculator is ideal for high school and college students.

Furthermore, this battery-operated calculator also includes a slide case for protection.

This calculator can also be used for trigonometric and basic science functions.

It comes with one line, one-variable statistics, and ten digits display.



7. Sharp EL-W516XBSL

The Sharp EL-W516XBSL scientific calculator features 556 different scientific functions.

This calculator also features an extra-large four-line and 16-digit LCD screen.

This calculator also has a Write View Technology, which displays formulas commonly written in textbooks.

It can solve three simultaneous equations and has various modes.



Factors to Consider Before Buying


Are You Allowed to Use It During Class?  

One factor that needs careful consideration when buying a calculator is its flexibility. Some best scientific calculators may or may not be used during classes due to their super-advanced technology. Therefore, before buying a calculator, you must determine whether you are okay not to use such a calculator in a chemistry class or not.    

What are the Functions? 

It is also wise to consider the functions of the calculator. Our team suggests getting a calculator that can find pH values, calculus functions, has conversion abilities, and can find exponential values. Some graphing calculators can solve simple equations and can save formulas. 

Any Advanced Options? 

The advanced option of your scientific calculators must follow suit with how advanced your learning curve is. Often, a high school student needs to determine their lessons’ advancement to find the best calculator for chemistry classes they attend. This will ensure that the option of their scientific calculators is helpful enough for them.

Related Posts:


You will need a scientific calculator for chem because some chemistry calculations are different from base arithmetic calculations. Therefore, such a calculator must have all the functions required to solve chemistry calculations.

A scientific calculator is a calculator designed to help you calculate science, engineering, mathematics, and chemistry problems. It has special buttons for parentheses, exponents, inverses of trigonometric functions, and pi. [1]

And the #1 Scientific Calculator for a Chemistry Subject is...

Our team unanimously chooses the Casio FX115ESPLUS as the #1 scientific calculator for a chemistry subject. It has a multi-replay feature that allows a college student to recheck their calculations. 

They can edit each step and calculate them again.  You can also use this calculator on the SAT, PSAT/NMSQT, and ACT college entrance exams. It is lightweight and fast. It even provides dual power of solar and battery to avoid last-minute accidents.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.

OUR # 1 Recommendation


Best Hot Plate for Distilling

What’s the Best Hot Plate for Distilling? List + Buying Guide

The best hot plate for distilling is a lifesaver for homes where clean water is scarce. Water bodies close to industrial sectors contain plenty of chemicals, which isn’t suitable for drinking. 

After more than 100 hours of research and testing, our team came up with this list. Let’s see what’s the best hot plate for distilling.


Cadco CSR-3T




Amazon Basics

Top 5 Hot Plates for Distilling

1. Cadco CSR-3T

The unit comes in with the Robertshaw thermostat, which is the hot plate to give you your desired temp with accuracy for water distillation or to make a variety of food.

Cadco CSR-3T hot plate comes with a signal, indicating that the burner is on for a safe process when you boil water on your vessel. Turn on the switch for the flame and let it boil.

The stainless steel body is easy to clean up with water and cloth. It’s suitable for people with a glass stove as well.

It has a dense rubber foot to ensure that the hot plate vessel is stable. With this feature, you are assured that it will not wiggle even when large vessels are on it.



2. Duxtop

The Duxtop Hot Plate product is one of the sleeker options on the list with its modernistic design for your home. It gives you a 120V 15 amp, which is the standard process for American homes. We recommend you use a saucepan with a lid.

The unit is ETL listed, and it meets the process of North American electrical requirements. It only weighs five pounds. The unit also gives you a compact build for a heavier vessel base.

The digital panel and the unit’s LED display make the process easy to adjust water temperature and view. It delivers a convenient built-in count-down timer, which goes up to 170 minutes when distilling water.

It features an auto-pan and overheats protection with a diagnostic error message so you can monitor it from time to time. It gives you a low and high voltage warning system for water, too.



3. Amazon Basics

AmazonBasics hot plate is slightly heavier than the Duxtop Hot Plate, but it remains one of the more portable options at roughly six pounds for the home. 

The hot plate looks quite similar to the Duxtop hot plate as well in terms of aesthetics. It gives you plenty of safety features, including a pause feature, overheat protection, and voltage warning when shimmering water. 

The unit features a glass panel stovetop, making the cleaning process easy. It does require induction-compatible cookware, like cast iron and cast aluminum. 

It’s ideal for people with a small area because of its compact design, so it fits nicely in studio apartments and RVs. The LED display provides you with a pre-set and 3-hour timer.



4. Broil King CSR-3TB

Broil King CSR-3TB hot plate is a high-power hot plate for your home. The unit features an eight-inch from 120 volts to 1500 watts. 

It comes with a thermostat with infinite heat water control that enables people to achieve their desired water temp.

The hot plate is industrial rated, meaning it’s suitable for the process of boiling and simmering water. It gives you sturdy housing as well. We recommend using a saucepan with a lid.

Broil King hot plate is made from heavy-duty steel for longevity. You’re also getting a convenient signal for when it is distilling water. Housing is easy to clean, and it’s in a vibrant grey color.



5. Moonshine Distiller

The Moonshine hot plate is mainly for distilling water, which is an excellent purchase if you’re looking for budget-friendly hot plates for your choice water distiller.

Moonshine is usable for cooking and laboratory use as well. Turn on the flame, and you can start using it.

However, unlike the industrial-rated products on the list, the hot plate can’t cater to objects heavier than a ten-pound vessel for food.



Your Guide to Buying

buying guide


The price can be anywhere between under $100 to $200, depending on the size, feature, material, and casing.

You can already purchase a highly functioning hot plate for water distilling at $75. However, it might not be wise to buy a hot plate below the $70-mark as it may compensate for quality.

Is It Easy to Clean?

A hot plate for distilling water with a metal body is the easiest to clean. You can use a damp cloth to wipe it up after removing hard water and debris from the housing. What’s more, a metal housing looks good aesthetically on some countertops as well. 

Is It User-Friendly?

The best hot plate equipment is easy to use for multiple purposes. There are some models with easy-to-use knobs so that you can get the precise temp for food. You’ll find videos and tutorials helpful.

A push to start button is best as it keeps it simple. An indicator signal works too for safety measures when burners are on. Make sure to place a saucepan with a lid. You can choose gas or electricity, too.

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Is It Durable?

Look for a hot plate with metal housing as it’s durable. A lot of models can accommodate a heavier vessel to avoid breakage when using it for food and other ways.

If you can afford a bit more, premium models are made from plastic that does well long-term. Take a look at their warranty. It should be compatible on a glass top stove as well. These are also useful for researchers who use distilled water for their laboratories and industries as it kills bacteria (1).


No, an average hot plate only uses 1,200 watts of power.

You should stop distilling at around 205 to 207 degrees.

And the #1 Hot Plate for Distilling is…

At the end of our study, the #1 hot plate is Cadco CSR-3T hot plate in the market. It gives you an eight-inch high-speed tubular element, and for your convenience, it features the Robertshaw for water temperature accuracy with infinite heating control ability.

The on/off rocker keeps it incredibly simple to use, and the noticeable power signal prevents incidents when you boil water. The metal housing is easy to clean, and it sits at a comfortable price range.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.

OUR # 1 Recommendation

Cadco CSR-3T