Best Organic Chemistry Model Kit

What’s the Best Organic Chemistry Model Kit? Top Picks & Alternatives

Taking an organic chemistry class needs a lot of preparation, and reading textbooks isn’t enough. A molecular model kit is an essential tool for any student as it helps you understand chemistry concepts better.

The question is, what’s the best organic chemistry model kit to buy? After hours of testing, connecting, and building each kit, here’s our ultimate list.


Dalton Labs


Old Nobby


Duluth Labs

Top 10 Organic Chemistry Model Kits in 2023

1. Dalton Labs

You’re getting a conventional ball-and-stick molecular model kit that provides you with color-coded atoms to fit the universal standards. 

Most of the items in the model kit are carbons, hydrogens, and bonds. The single bonds are short and rigid. Meanwhile, Dalton labs provide you with longer and flexible items for double and triple bonds. 

What makes Dalton Labs model kit better than similar model kits is that it gives aspiring scientists small, paddle-shaped items for the p and pi orbitals. 

Although it’s not required, these assist the students in understanding electrons better in a provided molecule. 

The model kit delivers good value, considering it offers 306 parts in total. It also gives the students access to 3D molecular modelling software. 

Depending on your child’s needs, the model kit comes in various sizes, starting from 123 to 496 parts (fullerene models).



2. Old Nobby

Old Nobby Molecular Model Kit delivers organic, inorganic, and functional groups for easy chemistry learning. It fits both beginners and advanced students for versatility.

For first-time users, the modeling kit provides you with an eight-page instructional guide so that you can identify the atoms and connectors. 

The Old Nobby molecular kit is a 239-piece kit, which falls short compared to the 306-piece Dalton Labs model kit. 

The kit provides you with color codes to visually help you understand the structure and compounds better.

The high-quality atoms and bonds allow you to swiftly connect and disconnect, so you can build complex structures within minutes to avoid finger fatigue. 

The manufacturer threw in a bonus link remover to make dissembling easy and fast.



3. Duluth Labs

Duluth Labs is another conventional ball and stick kit, similar to other model kits on the list. It comes with 125 items, and it does not have a lone pair or p orbital items. 

It’s a good option for a tight budget as it’s one of the cheaper ones on the market. However, it can only build only several models at once, which may not fit for classes. 

It comes in a rigid plastic box with a lid to secure it. Unlike the Old Nobby chemical structure model kit, the container can hold them without them falling over, which is a neat feature.

In total, it gives you 54 atoms for your molecular structures and functional groups. It comes with a molecular tool as well, allowing youtube to disassemble molecules and the atom connectors.



4. Molymod

Molymod molecular kit is cheaper than Duluth Labs, making it the cheapest product on the list. If you’re looking for a budget-friendly option, taking advantage of this 113-piece kit makes a good deal. 

While it isn’t as extensive as other brands, it does cover the essentials for basic modeling in your organic chem classes. 

On the other hand, because it lacks items, you cannot build multiple molecules simultaneously for teachers. It is especially true for larger molecules, such as sugars. 

The plastic container comes with four compartments, so it’s easy to organize for storage.



5. Happy Atoms

The Happy Atoms molecular model kit allows you to build, scan, and identify the molecules and elements. It’s a 17-atom chemical structure set, including the following atoms: 8 H, 3 C, 2 N, 2 O, 1 NA, and 1 cl. 

What makes Happy Atoms molecular model kit the go-to option for some buyers is its free downloadable application, which allows you to take a snap with your smartphone to scan the molecule you built. 

It analyzes the atom’s size, shape, and markings. 

The application shows its composition, usage, properties, and so much more. It recognizes over 10,000 molecules in its modelling kit.



6. Molecular Visions

Molecular Visions molecular model kit is different from the other model kits on the list as it does not have the typical ball-and-stick structure. Instead, it uses a push structure system, which is similar to the Kinex set. 

The molecule model kit by Molecular Visions is quite costly, and you’re getting it in a small plastic box. 

However, what makes the molecular model kit neat is the included guidebook. Students and teachers look at it as a mini organic chem course because of the value it brings. 

You may find the items harder to use than the traditional ball and stick molecular model structure, though. It’s a little challenging to put the things back into their case as you need to invest time to fit. You can always change the original box to make it more convenient.



7. LearnOn

Despite being one of the more affordable molecular model kits on the list, its quality is far from being the worst. Upon purchasing LearnOn molecular model kit, you’re getting a high-value eight-page illustrated user guide for your reference. 

The package comes with a total of 140 items. To be precise, you are given fifty high-quality atom parts and ninety links in this chemistry molecular model kit for building structure.

Like how the molecular model kits are, the atoms are color-coded to fit the universal standards, making identification easy. This educational molecule kit also gives you a link removal tool.



8. Snatoms

Snatoms chemistry molecular model kit is one of the more premium model kits on the list. If you’re willing to pay the cost for the best quality, Snatoms chemistry molecular model kit is a good choice for chemistry.

Unlike the molecular model kits ones, the atom pieces are magnetic. Snatoms believe that having the atoms stick together using magnets for models provides a more realistic understanding of how it looks for teachers and students.

The molecular model kit enables you to have lesser items in the molecular model kit as you do not need the stick pieces. Due to this, the organic chemistry kit only comes with 74 pieces in the box. 

This educational molecule has magnetic carbon atoms, but you’ll find small black bars as well for double and triple bonds.



9. University Chemistry Co.

The University Chemistry organic chemistry kit gives you 273 pieces, including the paddle-shaped lone pair or p orbital pieces. 

However, it is slightly more expensive than the Dalton Labs Kit organic chemistry model, which may put some buyers off.

Both the atoms and the bonds are easy to connect and disconnect in these molecular model kit structures. 

The organic chemistry model kit gives you 115 atoms across eight different elements, which are the following: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, metal, phosphorus, chlorine, and sulfur. 

The box is quite durable, and it’s spacious enough to keep the pieces together after usage.



10. Atomic Architect

The Atomic Architect organic chemistry model is a 124-piece model set, which includes fifty-four atoms and seventy bonds. The conventional ball and sticks activity chemistry model kit is ideal for high school to graduate-level students.

The organic chemistry model kit gives you atom centers, bonds, and orbitals. The pieces are easy to connect and disconnect as well. For convenience, you’re getting a disassembly tool you can use to remove bonds. 

The pieces are color-coded as well to fit the universal standards. The organic chemistry model kit storage box is designed for grade-A construction and easy fit.



Why Should I Use This Kit?

Molecular model kits for chemistry make it easier to grasp organic chemistry, especially for students with no prior experience on the matter. 

Organic chemistry is different from general chemistry as it does not entail all math and equations. It’s similar to learning a new language, and learning the grammar of organic chemistry is highly dependent on how you understand molecular geometry, electron orbitals, and spatial orientation.

It enables you to visualize molecules in 3D, so it’s easier for students to understand the molecular structures better. (1)

Buying Guide

buying guide


An organic chemistry model kit isn’t expensive. Certain models offer a money-back guarantee if you’re looking for the best bang for your buck. 

You can find the best molecular model kits moderately priced. The fewer the pieces, the cheaper the models are. For premium kits with magnetic atoms, they are fewer but costs more. There are several chemistry sets for adults and science kits for teens that are affordable yet efficient. 


The best molecular model kits have sturdy plastic containers that make it easy for students and the professor to carry it around. Avoid purchasing molecular model kits for chemistry with boxes that do not close securely, as there’s a chance the pieces might fall off. 

If you’re looking for models for portability, choose chemistry kits with smaller atom pieces. You may also add a USB microscope to your collection. 

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If you’re a grade 7 student, you might not need to purchase chemistry models to build complex structures.

For a teacher, you may need to invest in larger chemistry kits that can satisfy classes. 

Make sure the atom parts are enough to build molecular structures for your students.

Also, pieces that are easy to connect and disconnect, so you may avoid buying the push-clip system chemistry kits.


Number of Pieces

Purchase a chemistry set and kit that caters to your needs. While a 120-piece might be cheaper, it may not have enough atom pieces.

If you’re a student in earlier grades, fewer pieces are enough for your organic chemistry subject. However, graduate-level should invest in a 300-piece or a 400-piece chemistry educational molecule model kit. We suggest you add a good pair of lab goggles to your purchase. 

Special Features

A molecular model kit for chemistry provides you with unique features, such as a convenient application to make it easier for your student to understand the molecular structures better. However, these are pricier than the conventional ones. You may opt for magnetic pieces as well for convenience. We also recommend picking a periodic table poster and a reliable Chemistry textbook for a deeper understanding. 

And Our #1 Choice for Organic Chemistry Model Kit is…

At the end of our research, the Dalton Labs molecular model kit comes up on top. It provides the best value among the other organic chemistry kits and fits the requirement of our buying guide.

It might be on the cheaper end, but it gives you a 200-piece kit with an option to upgrade to a kit with a higher number of pieces. Dalton Labs also delivers pieces that represent orbitals to develop your learning further.

The pieces are top-tier, and it comes with a sturdy case.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.

OUR # 1 Recommendation

Dalton Labs Molecular Model Kit


What’s the Best Chemistry Textbook? Our Recommended List

Whether you’re an instructor or a student, finding the best chemistry textbook may be a daunting task. Thus, planning for the next school year could be a wise decision for you. 

In this article, our team will help you make an informed decision in choosing the most suitable chemistry book for your particular course syllabus, including AP Chemistry. We spent 120 hours reading through these books to come up with the cream of the crop.


Chemistry: The Central Science


Chemistry: A Molecular Approach


General Chemistry: The Essential Concepts

Top 7 Chemistry Textbooks

1. Chemistry: The Central Science

The Chemistry: The Central Science is one of the best chemistry textbooks that offer excellent quality at an affordable price tag. This is the 14th global edition of the best general chemistry textbook for students. 

This organic chemistry publication offers well-explained core concepts for chemistry, making students understand each topic better. It also shows practical applications that most students could apply in their everyday lives. 

We like how this organic chemistry publication also offers practice exercises that could help students understand the material/reference and improve their problem-solving abilities in chemistry. The Central Science book could get you through both semesters of general chemistry of university or college.



2. Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

The Chemistry: A Molecular Approach is a chemistry study guide that is an excellent choice for any chemistry high school syllabus. This textbook strengthens students’ ability and skills in the essential elements of data interpretation, team cooperation, and quant analysis detail.  

The Chemistry: A Molecular Approach also comprises exercises taken previously, during, or at a later activity. This book also provides an interactive and digital experience to students. It also comes with multi-level images that may help readers understand various chemistry concepts. 

Furthermore, The Chemistry: A Molecular Approach has concept tutorials explaining all challenging topics in a well-explained and well-detailed manner like Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change.



3. General Chemistry: The Essential Concepts

The General Chemistry: The Essential Concepts is another best chemistry lesson guide on our list. This is the 7th edition of General Chemistry, which is essential for a one-year general chemistry syllabus. This book also features Dr. Chang and Dr. Goldsby’s concise but thorough approach for natural chemists in dealing with things regarding their environment. 

This chemistry publication strikes a balance between application and theory approach by incorporating real-world examples. It also features animations correlated to the text, conceptual idea review, and hand-sketched worked examples. 

This General Chem publication also helps students visualize the three-dimensional atomic and molecular nature of matter and its structures. It also develops their problem-solving and critical thinking skills regarding everyday activities and their natural environment.



4. General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications

The General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications is one of the best chemistry textbooks. It presents superior practice problems, precise argument, and detailed treatment of the subject through a lucid writing approach. This one is the 11th edition of the General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications.

This organic chemistry textbook also offers enhanced hallmark features such as revised discussions and innovations that respond to fundamental market needs. It also provides a detailed and modern treatment of organic chemistry foundation. 

This chemistry material aims to embrace the power of visual learning and conquer the trials of effective problem solving and assessment.



5. Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Global Edition

The Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Global Edition is another top chemistry loose-leaf on our list. It features almost the same content as the traditional text in a more convenient loose-leaf version. This book edition and format also offer a less expensive price tag than paperbacks and hardcovers.

This is the 13th The Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Global Edition chemistry loose-leaf edition. It is ideal for those interested in learning anything about the allied health foundation. 

It also comes with a friendly presentation style, making it a perfect choice for high school students who don’t have prior knowledge or a foundation of chemistry.



6. Introductory Chemistry Essentials (Mastering Chemistry)

The Introductory Chemistry Essentials (Mastering Chemistry) is a chemistry textbook ideal for one-semester courses in Preparatory Chemistry. It prepares high school students for success by building 21st-century problem-solving skills one could easily develop. 

The Introductory Chemistry Essentials (Mastering Chemistry) is on its 6th edition and has been encouraging chemistry students’ interest by showing how chemistry manifests in their daily lives. 

Nivaldo Tro is the author of The Introductory Chemistry Essentials (Mastering Chemistry). The author wants to draw upon his classroom experience as an award-winning instructor by providing a visual text for his learners.  

The author wanted to extend chemistry from the laboratory directly to every student’s world. The author also aimed to capture student attention more using various relevant applications and an engaging writing style in The Introductory Chemistry Essentials (Mastering Chemistry) book. 

The author also presents real data in real-life situations such as cleaning, cooking, medicine, and the environment.



7. Chemistry For Dummies

The Chemistry For Dummies is a chemistry textbook ideal for students/readers who have little to almost no prior knowledge about General and Organic Chemistry. This book purposely uses everyday activities in presenting the ideas and concepts of chemistry step-by-step for beginners. 

The Chemistry For Dummies focuses on a fun and easy-to-grasp way of learning basic chemistry for beginners. The author of this book also tackles basic concepts of matter and energy, acids and bases, and atoms and molecules.  

The book’s author tracks a typical chemistry syllabus and provides time-saving tips from reliable chemistry professors. The Chemistry For Dummies also makes the periodic table, Quantum mechanics, and Quantum theory more approachable for beginners.



Choosing A Book

Choosing A Book

Are You An Instructor? 

When choosing one chemistry book as an instructor/teacher, you should search for a book that would cover all the topics of the whole semester you are supposed to teach. Look into your curriculum or syllabus, and then make sure that the topics are the same. 

The book should be able to explain the complexity of topics in a relatable and understandable way. This way, you can easily cascade the learning experience and learning curve to your students. 

Are You A Student? 

If you are a student, you should search for high school chemistry textbook reviews to ensure that the book covers all the topics you need to learn for your semester.  

It should provide you multiple exercises and necessary tests that could help you understand the topics better step-by-step. The book must also have well-organized thoughts and various concepts ranging from simple to complex. We also recommend pairing your book with a solid organic chemistry model kit and a top-rated USB microscope for better visual learning.

Buying Guide for Chemistry Textbooks

buying guide

Writing Style 

As a buyer, it is essential to determine the style of the book you are about to buy. For chemistry or biochemistry books, the textbook’s tone and overall style should be in a formal tone. It should also comprise academic conventions, evidence-based, and thesis-driven. Our team also suggests looking for chemistry books that provide suitable complexity and higher-order thinking. If you’re looking for high school chemistry textbooks, check here


Quality is equally essential in considering any chemistry handbook to buy. The book’s overall quality could be associated with the exercises given in the book, the depth of each explanation, and the research and problems given. You may also consider the quality of how the book had been organized from cover to cover.

Simple Explanations 

Chemistry equations are challenging and are something a bit different from mathematical problems, pH scale, and equations. Therefore, the best chemistry publication should include an in-depth explanation while developing your understanding of the whole process. It should feature innovative ways to explain the core concepts to make students/readers understand the lessons easier.

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Sample Exercises

The sample exercises should also include exercises that provide higher-order thinking abilities like discussing atoms and molecules concepts. Higher-order thinking skills include cognitive processes used to comprehend, solve problems, and express concepts or describe abstract ideas that cannot be easily acted out, pointed to or shown with images. [1]

Textbook or Supplement?

You should also consider whether you want to use the best chemistry handbook as a necessary textbook in your chemistry class or just a supplementary book.

If you opt to find a necessary textbook, the book’s topics should cover all the chapters indicated in your course.

However, supplementary textbooks may or may not fully cover the topics, as they would only act as a supplementary option for your better understanding of the lessons. Check out our list of AP Chem review books



It would be best also to consider the price tag of the best chemistry books. If you are to use the books as a supplementary book, you may not want to spend too much. However, if the books are necessary and required, spending a little higher than supplementary books could be reasonable.

Beginner or Advanced Learner?

Being a beginner or an advanced learner may also affect your choice of buying the best chem book. They are most inclined to buy chemistry books that offer easier-to-understand chemistry concepts and formulas for beginners. On the other hand, advanced learners would definitely purchase books with a more advanced teaching strategy suitable for their level of prior knowledge. Find out what’s the best chemistry set for kids here

And the #1 Chemistry Textbook is...

Our team chooses The Chemistry: The Central Science as the #1 chemistry textbook based on extensive research. This is the 14th global edition of the best general chemistry textbook for students at an affordable price. It also offers well-explained core concepts for chemistry, making students understand each topic better. 

The Central Science chemistry textbook also offers practice questions and exercises to help more students understand the handbook and improve their problem-solving abilities in chemistry. The Central Science textbook also shows practical applications that most students could apply in their everyday lives.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.

OUR # 1 Recommendation

The Chemistry: The Central Science Highlights

How To Melt Silver With Borax

Melting Silver With Borax – Easy Steps You Can Try At Home

Unbeknownst to many, gold and silver aren’t only used for jewelry like sterling silver. It is also commonly used for industrial purposes, such as electronics for industrial machines. Now that people recycle almost everything, learning how to reuse silver may come in handy.

In this article, we will discuss the step-by-step guide on how to melt silver with borax.

Melting Silver with Borax in 8 Easy Steps

melting silver

1. Gather the Supplies You Need

First things first –  gather all the supplies you need to melt silver using borax. The first thing you need to grab is safety gear. You will also need a silver compound, an adequate quantity of borax, the crucible, soda, a pair of thongs, sodium nitrate, mold or cast, and a bowl of cold water. 

2. Wear Safety Gear 

Since you will be exposed to a few harmful materials in melting silver with borax as the flux, you need to protect yourself. Our team suggests that you wear masks and gloves, and other safety gear. 

We also recommend doing the whole process in a well-ventilated area inside your house. Or, if you have one extra space in your yard,  melting your silver or even gold outdoors is also an excellent idea.

3. Use a Furnace (if you have one)

This one step can only be done if you happen to own a furnace. Furnaces can have many uses, like giving you a source of heat needed. You can place the metal inside the furnace or take a crucible to start the process in such a case. With adequate amounts needed, place the silver chloride. Melting the silver chloride in the crucible is ideal. 

Our team suggests that you ensure that the container is large enough to hold the metals when it starts boiling, so the silver chloride won’t spill.   

However, if the silver chloride you want to melt is too large to be placed on a container, our team suggests breaking it into a smaller part or piece. This way, melting small amounts of it would be easier and safer. It would also hasten the melting process with ease.

Melting Furnace

4. Use a Blowtorch  

You can also utilize a blow torch in melting metal or even gold in the crucible. The melting time for metal depends on the size and its substance composition. A lot of torches don’t come with a melting temperature gauge, so you need to monitor the whole process and the torch until the metal starts melting. Check the surface from time to time. 

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5. Add the Mixture to the Crucible 

After which, mix the soda and boric acid with the proportion of 1:1 and add it into the crucible. For at least one kilogram of silver powders, about 500 grams of the mixture is somewhat sufficient to melt the metal. Keep on torching the piece of precious metal until it totally melts.  

You can also add sodium nitrate little by little until you finally see the metal. However, you need to be careful in using sodium nitrate because it is highly flammable. Any mishandling of the said substance can cause explosions and could harm your jewelry. Silver is almost as sensitive as gold.

6. Let the Silver Melt

Once the metal layer in the crucible is visible, you need to let the silver melt. Wait for some time until this layer boils under adequate heat from the torch.

Once it boils, stop the heat from the torch and utilize a graphite stir rod to get rid of the slag or scrap silver/metal layer from the molten metal.  

You have to get rid of the slag/scrap because it is the impurities that got melted along with the silver.

You have to remove any metal residues before proceeding to the next step for a finer jewelry finish and higher purity level. Of course, most people prioritize this step, like how they recycle gold or copper, too.


7. Pour the Molten Silver 

Use tongs to hold the crucible in pouring the molten silver. Pour the melted silver into the molds you have prepared while it is in liquid form. Again, ensure that you have already gotten rid of all the impurities before pouring the metal into the molds to provide a higher quality finish and get the desired shape and angle. You may also use a refining flux to get rid of any fineness marks.

8. Let the Molten Silver Set   

After pouring the melted silver with borax beads, let the substance sit on the mold for a while to let it completely sit. The amount of time you’d need depends on the type of mold or metal quantity. It could probably take at least 30 seconds up to two minutes.

When the metal has already settled, utilize the tongs to take it out from the mold. Submerge the molded silver in cold water so it’d cool down and harden. Quenching is a rapid way of bringing metal back to room temperature after heat treatment to prevent the cooling process from dramatically changing the metal’s microstructure. [1

Right after successfully molding the metal, silver soldering can be done as an option. You can form jewelry like most gold or anything you want to do with it.


Apart from gold, you can melt silver/metal in the comfort of your home. Precious metals can be melted using a lot of tools such as a blowtorch or even an ordinary microwave oven. You can also use a stand made of asbestos or any other temperature-resistant materials. Learning how to melt silver with borax as the flux to reduce the melting point is an excellent choice.

To remove borax from silver, you must know how to melt silver with borax first. You can use a rolling mill or a rock tumbler. Use it with a jeweler’s shot, a spot of dish soap, and a drop of vinegar. A lot of people even soak their silver/metal using vinegar alone.

So, How Do You Melt Silver with Borax?

There may be other ways to melt silver or gold. However, melting it with borax is easier, especially when you have the right tools. Boric acid in a well borax glazed container can remove the metal oxides from the silver/metal without affecting its purity. 

To do this process, you need to gather all the necessary tools like safety gear, gas torch pressure, or blowtorch. Mix the borax and soda, pour it into the crucible while the silver is torched. Keep torching the silver/metal until the borax melts it, and then pour it into the mold. In doing these steps, you’ll melt silver with borax even at the comfort of your home.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.



Identifying Chirality Centers – Steps & Techniques To Observe

In organic chemistry, a molecule possesses various properties, and one of them is chirality. It pertains to a carbon atom with four different ligands or substituents. Knowing this concept is fundamental to understanding isomers.  

Today, we will show you the steps on how to find chiral centers.

2 Steps to Follow When Looking for Chiral Centers in Molecules

chiral centers

1. Eliminate atoms that cannot be chiral centers. 

A chiral center is a stereocenter with an atom (usually carbons) attached to four nonidentical substituents. To spot potential chiral centers in a molecule, look for carbons connected to four different groups. 

Exclude the atoms that aren’t considered chiral centers. These include all straight-chain alkyl group carbons (CH 3 or CH 2 units) because they have two or more identical atoms (i.e., the hydrogens) connected to the carbons. Oxygen, halogens, and carbons on double or triple bonds can’t be chiral centers as they can’t have bonds to four different groups. 

Any molecule with chiral centers are mirror images of each other, but they are non-superimposable.

2. List out the groups or substituents.

List out the groups attached to the carbon atom. Look at the following examples.

The four groups attached to the carbon are CH3, H, Cl, and Br. They are all different groups. Therefore, this is a chiral center. 

The groups attached to this carbon atom are O, CH3, and H. There are only three groups. Therefore, it is not a chiral center. 

The four groups attached to this carbon atom are NH2, H, CH2CH2CHOH, and CH2CH2CHOH.

The last two groups are the same. Therefore, this is not a chiral center.

CH3, H, Cl, and Br

There seem to have two chiral centers or carbon atoms in this example, but the other carbon is attached to only three groups; therefore it is not chiral. For the second carbon, there are the four groups attached to the carbon atom: H, CH2, C, and Br. These are all different. Therefore, this is a chiral center. 

For a compound with more than one carbon atom, consider the orientation of the chiral molecules. They have the same molecular formula and property but differ in orientation. Lactic acid has two chiral centers that are identical but have no symmetry plane and aren’t superimposable.

What are Chiral Centers?

In Chemistry, chiral centers are tetrahedral atoms bonded to four different substituents. They are usually carbons. Other types of atoms that can be chiral are tertiary nitrogens, quaternary nitrogens, hypervalent phosphorus, and hypervalent sulfur. However, these chiral atoms are rare. 

A molecule or compound may have two chiral centers or more. Compounds with more than one chiral center are chiral but with the exception of Meso compounds. 

Chiral centers are considered enantiomers, which are non-superimposable types of stereoisomers. They have the same molecular formula and connectivity but differ in orientation. They are mirror images, but they cannot be put on top of each other and become the same molecule. Just like the right and the left hands, they are identical, but they cannot be superimposed.

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Why are Chiral Centers Important?

Many of our biological molecules, including our DNA, amino acids, neurotransmitters, and glucose, are chiral molecules.  

In making therapeutic drugs, the chiral center is crucial.[1] Different isomers in compounds cause different effects on the body.

One isomer of a chiral drug could treat a particular disease while others may be inactive or highly toxic. 

Take, for example, the drug thalidomide. It used to be prescribed for pregnant women with morning sickness.

One enantiomer is effective at alleviating symptoms, but the other enantiomer can cause serious birth defects.


A molecule is chiral if four different atoms are attached to a tetrahedral atom (usually carbons). A molecule may have two chiral centers or more. One example is lactic acid which has two chiral centers. The mirror image isn’t superimposable with the other image.

In organic chemistry, the feature that determines chirality is an asymmetric carbon atom in a molecule or compound. The mirror images or enantiomers of a chiral molecule cannot be superimposed with each other.

Determining Chiral Centers

Organic chemistry is a challenging course, but the concepts are highly relevant to our day-to-day lives. Some compounds have the same chemical formula and physical property but differ in structures and orientation in space (i.e., isomers). 

We have shown you the steps in identifying stereocenters in a compound. Identify the carbon atom with four different ligands, and then examine the orientation and plane of symmetry. 

You might have questions about the need to grasp these concepts. One good answer to that is helping us demystify why certain chemicals in foods or drugs can be both beneficial and toxic to our physical bodies.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.


compound Sulfur Tetrafluoride

Sulfur Tetrafluoride – Total Lone Pairs Of Electrons On Each S Atom

SF4 is known as the compound Sulfur Tetrafluoride – a colorless corrosive gas. SF4 is utilized in the synthesis of the organofluorine compound.

In molecular geometry and hybridization, how many lone pairs of electrons are on the s atom in SF4? Let’s find out!

Determining the Lone Pairs of Electrons on the SF4 S Atom

In the formation of SF4, the sulfur atom compound produces bonds with the fluorine where there are eight valence electrons. 

In SF4, the four fluorine atoms have three pairs of electrons in the octet, which uses twenty-four valence electrons. 

There are a total of thirty-four valence electrons. These valence electrons are for covalent bonding. 

Two electrons are lone pair in SF4. You can determine the SF4 hybridization of sulfur compounds by considering the regions of the electron density.

When there is bonding, there is a formation of four single bonds in four single bonds in SF4, and it only carries one lone pair. 

Sulfur is in the central atom. The central atom and the sulfur compound have a pair of electrons.

formation of SF4

Factors to Consider


Molecular Geometry 

In SF4 molecular geometry, the molecular formula helps you to know the precise number and the type of atoms present in the specified compound. 

There is a sulfur atom and four fluorine atoms in its compound, making it the same as the formula of the AX4E in SF4 molecular geometry.   

The molecules having the formula of AX4E have the trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry positions. Two fluorine atoms forming bonds with the sulfur atom are in the equatorial position. Meanwhile, the two are in the axial position in molecular geometry opposing the fluorine atoms.  

When the central atom carries one or more pairs of electrons, the geometries of molecules change.


To find out the SF4 molecule’s hybridization, you have to consider the regions of the electron density of the central atom. 

For hybridization, the Sulfur compound has four bonding pairs of electrons. It also has one lone pair. The sulfur atom utilizes five hybridized orbital, a 3s orbital, three 3p orbitals, and a 3D orbital.   

The following arrangement of the electrons around them and the hybridized orbitals leads up to the sp3d hybridization. You can utilize the steric number as well for hybridization.

5 is the steric number for the sulfur atom.

Lewis Structure

Lewis Structure is a pictorial representation of bonds and the number of valence electrons in the molecule. 

The number of valence electrons participating in forming bonds is known as the bonding pairs of electrons in the Lewis Structure. 

Meanwhile, the electrons that do not participate are known as nonbonding pairs of electrons in the Lewis Structure.

In the Lewis structure of SF4, you need the total number of valence electrons in the molecule. There is a sulfur atom in the compound and four fluorine atoms. 

To find out the total valence electrons of the compound, you need to know the valence electrons of the atoms individually in the Lewis Structure.

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Bond Angles & Shape

Central sulfur atoms have four bond formations with the nearby fluorine atoms.

It has one lone pair of electrons. Fluorine atoms that are in the equatorial positions have bond angles of 102 degrees. 

Meanwhile, the axial ones are 173 degrees, which are slightly different from the trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry that leads to a see-saw shape.

The lone pair of electrons in the central atom that leads to the changing of the bond angle. It’s from the bond angles of 120 to 102 degrees for the equatorial fluorine atoms.

What’s more, 173 degrees instead of 180 degrees for the axial fluorine atoms.

sf4 molecular geometry


Once you know the Lewis Structure and molecular geometry of specific compounds, it is easier to see the polarity of the molecule. 

One lone pair in the central sulfur atom compound and the four bonding pairs of electrons can lead to the asymmetric distribution of electrons on the central atom. 

The shape of the molecule appears like a see-saw. Two fluorine atoms are able to cancel each other in their dipole moment. However, the rest of the fluorine atoms cannot do it in their dipole moment because of the arrangement of the electron. 

SF4 Applications

SF4 is used in making the water as well as oil repellent material. The fluorinating agent is also for making pesticides and lubricity enhancers. 

SF4 is highly toxic through inhalation, and it irritates the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. (1) The SF4 reacts intensely with water and acids as it yields toxic fluoride and sulfur oxide fumes. It is an acidic solution.

How To Identify the Number of Electron Lone Pairs on the S Atom in S4

SF4 has the central atom S attached to the four atoms through the four single bonds. It uses the four valence electrons and the remaining two valence electrons that remain one lone electron pair. In other words, it means that the SF4 S atom has one lone electron pair. 

Keep in mind you need to know the number of valence electrons first, Lewis structure, molecular geometry, bond formation, and other properties. There are eight of the thirty-four valence electrons utilized in a covalent bonding pair. It leaves the rest of the valence electrons behind. 

Through this, you will understand the properties and the model better for sulfur tetrafluoride.



Lewis Structure – Number of Lone Pairs in Sulfur Explained

Sulfur is used for making gunpowder, matches, fireworks, insecticides, and fumigants. Elemental sulfur is also for the treatment of some skin diseases. The principal use of sulfur can be found in the preparation of compounds. 

When it comes to organic chemistry, specifically the Lewis Structure, how many lone pairs does sulfur have? Find the answer below. 

Determining the Number of Lone Pairs in Sulfur

The sharing of electrons allows atoms to stick together. It is the basis of covalent bonding. Some are intermediate distant, which is longer than 0.1 nm. 

If you prefer 100 pm, it is where the attractive forces surpass the repulsive forces. A formation of a bond if the atoms can achieve complete s2np6 configuration.

It is this specific behavior that Lewis captured in the octet rule. You need the valence electron configuration of a constituent atom of the covalent compound. 

These are essential factors to determine the structure, stoichiometry, and properties.

pair sulfur

Identifying Lone Pairs in a Molecule

The bond pairs are a pair of electrons. One is from the central atom while one is with the atom, which is known as bonding. It participates in the bonding of the atom. 

Meanwhile, lone pairs are the pairs of the electron in an atom that do not take part in the bonding of the two atoms.

To identify the lone pairs in the molecule, you have to figure out the number of valence electrons in an atom. Next, you have to deduct the number of electrons that took part in the bonding. 

You have to keep in mind that the lone pairs are pairs. Therefore, if you can find one free electron that isn’t participating, it means the compound is a charge.

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Using the Lewis Structure

You need to determine the valence electrons per atom. You add them together with the total number of electrons basing on the overall species charge. It can either gain or lose numbers.

After which, you determine its central atom, which is the least electronegative element. You draw the single bonds that are between the central and terminal atoms.

Subtract the electrons in forming the bonds from the first step while keeping in mind that a single bond is composed of two electrons.

Around the terminal atoms, you distribute the line pairs, so they are following an octet. Subtract the number of electrons from the number you have obtained.

Put the remaining electrons in its central atom. Then, you see if it’s possible to reduce formal charges. The structure that gives you the smallest charges in magnitude is what you call the Lewis Structure.

Lewis Structure of CS2

Using the VSEPR Theory to Determine Sulfur’s Lone Pairs

Using the VSEPR model, you can predict the structure of most molecules or polyatomic ions, which means the central atom is a nonmetal. 

It includes structures of plenty of molecules and polyatomic ions that have central metal atoms. 

The electron pairs are in bonds. Meanwhile, the lone pairs repel from each other. In other words, it adopts the geometry that puts the electron pairs far from each other as much as possible.

It is a simplistic theory, and it can’t account for the subtleties of the orbital interactions that influence the molecular shapes (1). 

On the other hand, the counting procedure can accurately predict the 3D structures of a massive number of compounds.

So, How Do You Identify the Number of Lone Pairs in Sulfur?

The sulfur atom shares a bonding pair and three lone pairs. In total, it has six valence electrons. 

To keep it simple: you can identify the number of lone pairs in sulfur by following these steps.

  • Arrange the atoms to show specific connections.
  • Determining the total number of valence electrons 
  • Put a bonding pair of electrons between each pair of the adjacent atoms 
  • Add enough electrons to each atom 
  • If any electrons are left over, place them on the central atom.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.


CS2 Double Bonds

CS2 Lewis Structure – Number of Double Bonds Illustrated

Carbon disulfide (CS2) is an extremely volatile, flammable, odorous, and colorless compound. But, how many double bonds does CS2 have?

For a more concise discussion on CS2 Lewis structure, bond type, and other molecular properties, continue reading.

Understanding the CS2 Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure is a very simplified illustration of the valence shell of electrons in a molecule using dots and lines. It follows the octet rule concept.

In the periodic table, only the s and p elements are involved in the octet rule and Lewis structure.

Looking at the CS2 Lewis structure, CS2 is composed of one carbon atom and two sulfur atoms. Carbon atoms have the least electronegative charge; therefore, the carbon is in the center bonding with the two sulfur atoms forming the bond angle. 

The Lewis structure of a carbon disulphide molecule is key to understanding its geometry, type of bond, polarity, and hybridization.

Lewis Structure of CS2

CS2 Bond Formation and Its Type

bond formation

Chemical bonds are classified into three in terms of their interactions:

  • Covalent: Sharing of valence electrons between nonmetals.
  • Ionic: Transfer of valence electrons between a metal and a nonmetal.
  • Metallic: Chemical bonding between metals. 

There are three types of bonds based on the number of pairs of electrons:

  • Single: Two atoms share one electron pair.
  • Double: Two atoms share two electron pairs.
  • Triple: Two atoms share three electron pairs.

The Lewis structure can help you determine at face value the bond formation between atoms. 

The CS2 molecule has two nonmetals (i.e., carbon and sulfur); therefore, it’s a covalent bond. 

The sulfur atoms form double bonds with the central atom.

The molecule has a total of 16 valence electrons; four valence electrons from the carbon atom and six valence electrons from each sulfur atom. The remaining eight electrons are the lone pairs. The valence electrons are in 2p and 2s orbitals of the central atom.

Other Factors to Consider



Polarity refers to the distribution of electrical charges across the molecule or atoms of a molecule. 

Polarity is determined by the electronegativity values of two atoms involved in a bond. 

A polar molecule results from unequal sharing of electrons, whereas a nonpolar molecule results from the equal sharing of electrons between two atoms. 

CS2 molecule is nonpolar even though it has lone pairs of unshared electrons, and its carbon-sulfur bond differs in electronegativity. The charge gets canceled due to its linear symmetry. You’ll find an in-depth discussion of polar vs nonpolar molecules here

Molecular Geometry

VSEPR theory is essential to determining the molecular geometry of CS2 molecules. 

It posits that each atom in a molecule will have a geometry or structural arrangement that reduces the repulsion between electrons in the valance shell of that atom.

CS2 molecule has a linear shape with bond angles of 180o. The carbon atom is between the sulfur atoms.

molecular geometry


Hybridization is the fusion of atomic orbitals to create newly hybridized orbitals, which can influence bonding properties and geometry. 

The CS2 molecule has “sp” hybridization.

From a theoretical standpoint, “sp” hybridization is formed if an “s” orbital overlaps with a “p” orbital. If the central atom has two valence electron density regions around it, it will produce sp hybridization.

You can use formulas to determine the hybridization of CS2.

Here’s the formula:

Hybridization value= 0.5(V+M-C+A) 

  • V: number of  valence electrons in the central atom
  • M: number of valence electrons
  • C: charge of the cations
  • A: charge of the anions

Therefore, H=2 here. It means that the hybridization type is sp.

Calculate the steric number. Here’s the formula:

Number of sigma bonds + number of lone pairs (of the central atom)= Steric number

2+0 (no lone pairs in the carbon atom) = 2

This means that there are two pi bonds formed or two hybrid orbitals- the sp hybridization of CS2.

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The CS2 molecule is a nonpolar covalent bond with two double bonds. The valence electrons that form this type of bond are in 2s and 2p orbitals of the carbon atom.

Two atoms share one pair of electrons in a single bond only, whereas, in a double bond, two atoms share two pairs of valence electrons between each other.

Determining CS2 Double Bonds

Carbon disulfide is often used in soil disinfectants and can cause many health hazards, including death when induced in large amounts. [1] Not having basic chemistry knowledge can be a problem for any student. Understanding molecules or compounds requires some explanation about certain properties such as CS2 Lewis structure, bonding structure, polarity, molecular geometry, and hybridization. 

We discussed the chemical properties of each carbon disulfide molecule. It has 16 valence electrons, has unshared lone pairs, and forms two double bonds. It’s a nonpolar covalent bond, possesses sp orbitals, and has a linear shape.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.


molecular-geometry vs electron geometry

Electron Pair Geometry vs Molecular Geometry – Key Differences Explained

Molecular geometry and electron geometry in chemistry are how atoms are arranged around a center in a three-dimensional space. This arrangement provides the familiar molecular shape and bond angles to atoms.

But, how is the molecular geometry different from the electron pair geometry? Learn from our thorough discussion below.

What's the Main Difference Between Electron Pair Geometry & Molecular Geometry

Molecular geometry in chemistry is a concept that refers to the arrangement of atoms about the central atom in a three-dimensional space.

The definition of electron geometry is the arrangement about electron groups of atoms. The bond is 105 degrees.

If the lone pairs of electrons are situated in the molecule, it changes the molecular geometry and not the electron pairs. 

When electrons are bonded to the central atom and do not have lone pairs, the electron geometry and molecular geometry are similar.

molecular-geometry vs electron geometry- mg

Molecular & Electron Geometry Variance

Molecular Geometry



Molecular geometry has concepts that allow you to understand the entire atom along with the arrangement. It is the 3D arrangement in all of the atoms.

The molecular works to help scientists in understanding the shapes of more complicated atoms. A lone pair isn’t included in the molecular geometry. 

The shapes of the molecules have important roles that determine the job that these molecules are performing in our bodies.

It is dependent on electrons and number of lone pairs. Trigonal planar has a bond angle of 120 degrees.


Let us use H2O to understand this better. 

Oxygen is a central atom that has six valence electrons. The hydrogen donates a total of two electrons. In total, there are eight. In this example, there are four electron groups and two lone electron pairs. What’s more, there are two single bond pairs.

In this case, the molecular geometry is bent. We can draw the molecular formation quickly. 

Another example is CO2.

Carbon dioxide is what you call a linear molecular.

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Electron Pair Geometry


In VSEPR theory, the repulsion between the electron geometry pair shapes is electron geometry. (1)

In electron geometry, it reduces the repelling energy. A lone pair of electrons gives you the most excellent repelling results due to repulsion in theory.   

Electron geometry uses dots to identify the number of valence electrons included atoms have. You can count the bonding electrons and the non-bonding electrons pairs of the electron group that encircles the central atom.

The trigonal planar concept means it has three electron groups. A trigonal planar is made out of three equally spaced sp2 hybrid orbitals.

The Trigonal Bipyramidal has three sides. The Trigonal Bipyramidal has bond angles of 120 degrees.

According to VSEPR, the bond pairs are spaced around the valence shell so that it achieves the furthest distance from each other in electron geometry.  

In electron geometry, only the bonding electrons pairs contribute to the final shape of the molecule. It is the difference between electron geometry and molecular. 

The lone pairs of electrons do not determine it. The valence electron pairs stay away from each other in electron geometry.


A molecule that features two bonding electron pairs and has no nonbonding pairs of electrons, like carbon dioxide, is linear. 

The water and ammonia molecules have four valence shell electron groups. The water has two bonding and two nonbonding pairs of electrons, resulting in a v-shape in electron geometry.  

The two hydrogen atoms are forced closer together in the account for the two pairs of the non-bonding electrons. 

Ammonia, for instance, is a lone pair of electrons other than a bonding one.


Molecular geometry is important because it helps you understand the molecular structure of a specific compound that helps determine the shape and phase of matter. It is as essential as electron geometry.

Yes, the shape in molecular and electron geometry matters as it helps in determining the properties.

Molecular Geometry vs Electron Pair Geometry - In Conclusion

Electron geometry is about the arrangement of electron groups. Molecular geometry helps us understand the number of lone pairs of electrons. In electron geometry, we determine the molecular shape. In molecular geometry, we only consider the bond electron pairs. 

Electron geometry and molecular geometry are similar when all electrons are bonded and don’t have lone pairs. If lone pairs – those that are not bonded to any other atom – are located in a molecule, this relatively changes the molecular geometry, and not the electron geometry. 



What’s the Best Hydrogen Water Bottle? Reviews & Buying Guide

Proper hydration is essential to maintain a healthy body and supple skin. Drinking water with dissolved hydrogen gas (H2) has become more than just a trend, considering the benefits it offers compared to regular water. We like how the extra hydrogen acts as an antioxidant and promotes healthier gut health. 

Our team decided to step up and help you find the best hydrogen water bottle that will satisfy not just your thirst, but your body’s nutritional needs, as well. Here you go. 




Davidlee F4-2



Top 5 Hydrogen Water Bottles for 2023

1. LevelUpWay

The first (H2) hydrogen water bottle on the list is the LevelUpWay Hydrogen generator water bottle.

This hydrogen water bottle features a premium quality bottle that uses the latest SPE and PEM technology.   

This (H2) hydrogen water generator bottle also comes with the new proton exchange membranes, which the company claims to be all the better than the old machinery.

This fifth-generation molecular (H2) hydrogen water generator water bottle is also insulated to maintain the water’s temperature.



2. Davidlee F4-2

Second on the list is Davidlee F4-2 (H2) hydrogen water bottle provides a detachable base for generating molecular hydrogen-rich water.

Its independent and detachable base can also be used with other bottles, making it a more versatile option.

It also provides two electrode plates for its electrolysis modes, indicated by blue or green colors.




The GOSOIT Hydrogen Water Bottle is one of the best (H2) hydrogen water bottles that start with pH in the range of 7.5 to 9 to produce hydrogen and alkaline water. This bottle also produces (H2) hydrogen in less than three minutes with just a push of a button. 

This (H2) hydrogen water bottle also features a curve design and comfortable grip, making it easy to hold and carry around. This (H2) hydrogen bottle even comes with titanium platinum electrolyte membranes or electrode plates efficient in electrolysis and produces (H2) hydrogen rapidly.



4. Hydrogen Generator

The (H2) Hydrogen Generator is another hydrogen water bottle that improves nutrient absorption and metabolism for most people.

This (H2) hydrogen water bottle is also portable and convenient to carry.

At an affordable price, you can get a shorter electrolysis time separating all the molecules. 

This (H2) hydrogen water bottle is also made of food-grade plastic ABS. You would only need at least five minutes to change the (H2) hydrogen water quality of this hydrogen bottle.




The last best hydrogen water bottle is the ST SYNTEAM water bottle.

This budget-friendly hydrogen water bottle features DuPont ionizing membranes efficient in (H2) hydrogen production within three to five minutes.

Using this hydrogen generator or hydrogen water bottle, you can achieve 1500PPB (H2) hydrogen concentration in tap water or more to sustain your health.



Ultimate Buying Guide

buying guide


Whether you’re aiming to buy a hydrogen water bottle for your hiking, sports, or workout activities, we recommend looking at the price. You’ll find plenty of affordable hydrogen water bottles, but make sure that you also take a look at the qualities – including the specifications. Top-of-the-line hydrogen bottles range from around $80 to $200.    


A hydrogen water bottle already provides advanced technology to begin with. However, not all water bottles offer more cutting-edge features, such as faster time in hydrogen production. Some bottles are equipped with platinum coatings and a hydrogen lock using micro-nano technology.  

Water Concentration 

The hydrogen concentration a hydrogen water bottle produces is also an essential factor to consider. Some water bottles can provide a hydrogen concentration of 1200-2800PPB hydrogen ions. Depending on your needs, you can consider these numbers as a starting point.  

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If you are to invest in this type of water bottle or hydrogen water maker, you have to make sure that the bottle is sturdy enough to last long to improve your health further. Our team also suggests looking for a hydrogen water bottle built with the food material grade materials to ensure the safety of the concentration when used.


The holding capacity of the hydrogen water bottle somewhat depends on your preference. Therefore, this should be more important to you, especially if you are particularly looking for a water bottle that is large enough to give you a hydrogen concentration for your health. 


A hydrogen water bottle supplier typically offers a one-year warranty or more. If you are lucky enough, you’ll also find some that provide for lifetime maintenance and a 30 days return guarantee.


Yes, hydrogen water is good for you, especially if you are very active in sports and other physically draining activities. It helps in your blood circulation and reduces the inflammation and free radicals in your body. It could also give you a strong antioxidant effect. Hydrogen water is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the FDA, meaning that it’s approved for human consumption and not known to cause harm. [1]

There are no over official claims about hydrogen water overdoses. Although you can hydrogenate the mineral water for as long as you like, it is almost impossible to overload it with hydrogen. However, keep in mind that whatever you consume in excess may somehow lead you to something disastrous.

And the #1 Hydrogen Water Bottle is...

Based on extensive research, our team chooses the LevelUpWay Hydrogen water bottle. It uses the latest SPE and PEM technology. This hydrogen water bottle has SPE applied science that removes the trapped H2O, giving its consumers the highest hydrogen concentration that is more than one ppm. 

This hydrogen water bottle is also insulated to maintain the water’s drinking temperature. This bottle is BPA-free and comes with a one-year warranty and a 30-day return guarantee.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.

OUR # 1 Recommendation

LevelUpWay Brands

How To Know If A Molecule Is Polar Or Nonpolar

Determining Polar & Nonpolar Molecules In 3 Steps

Polarity is one of the properties of a compound related to other properties such as boiling and melting point, solubility, and molecular interactions between molecules. Polar and nonpolar molecules differ significantly.

Here are the steps to help you determine if a molecule is polar or nonpolar.

How Do I Know If A Molecule is Nonpolar Or Polar?

Nonpolar molecules consist of identical sides around the central atom and therefore have no unshared pairs of electrons.

The atoms in a molecule have equal or nearly equal electronegativities and have zero or very small dipole moments. 

By contrast, a polar molecule consists of lone pairs of electrons on a central atom and therefore has unequal sharing of electrons. It has a permanent dipole moment, which arises from differences in electronegativities between atoms.

One part has a partial positive charge, while the other part has a partial negative charge. These two electrically charged regions are called poles.

Determining Polar and Nonpolar Molecules

Polar Molecules Nonpolar Molecules 
Separation of Electric Charges Has a positively charged end and a negatively charged end No separate electric charges
Distribution of Electrons Asymmetrical Symmetrical
Formation Polar molecules Nonpolar molecules
Net Dipole Moment Yes None
Reactivity Yes and forms solutions None
Dissolution With polar molecules only With nonpolar molecules only
Bond type between nonmetals Polar covalent bond Nonpolar covalent bond

3 Steps to Determine if a Molecule is Polar Or Nonpolar


1. Draw the Lewis Structure

The Lewis dot structure provides a simple model between the bonds in a molecule and the lone electron pairs. It’s essential for predicting molecular geometry, molecule polarity, and reactivity in a compound.

Begin drawing the Lewis dot structure of the molecule. You may need a periodic table for this. 

2. Determine the Shape

Polar and nonpolar molecules differ in their geometric shapes. 



Compound Example







Trigonal Planar






Trigonal Pyramidal



Nonpolar and polar molecules exhibit some degree of electronegativity difference between bonded atoms.[1]

Nonpolar bonds: The electronegativity values are equal or nearly equal. There’s no element with more negative or positive charge than another side. The electronegativity difference between bonded atoms is less than 0.4. 

Polar bonds: The electronegativity difference is greater than 0.4 between bonded atoms. There is at least one side of the molecule with more negative or positive charge than another side.1.

3. Dissect the Symmetric Molecules

Polar molecules have an unshared electron pair while the nonpolar molecule doesn’t.  If you look at pictures of polar and nonpolar molecules, they vary in symmetry. 

Examine the arrows in the Lewis dot structure

Nonpolar covalent bond: The arrows are equal in length, and the arrangement is symmetrical. All the atoms attached to the middle atom are identical. They share all electron pairs. 

Polar covalent bond: The arrows are of different lengths, and the arrangement is asymmetrical or uneven. The atoms attached to the atom aren’t all the same.

Some Examples:

Some Examples


Some examples of polar molecules include ethanol, methanol, water, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen cyanide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, ozone, sucrose, hydrofluoric acid, acetone, ether,  acetic acid, difluoromethane, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, methylamine, bromomethane, chloroform, hexane, acetonitrile, pyridine, glycerol, and butyl cellosolve.  


Some examples of nonpolar molecules include noble gases, carbon dioxide, methane, benzene, homo-nuclear diatomic molecules, oxygen, propane, butane, sulfate, carbon tetrachloride, ethylene, hydrocarbons (toluene, gasoline), sulfur hexafluoride, beryllium dichloride, acetylene, fats, turpentine, and alkanes.

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Are There Exceptions to the Rules?

The Lewis dot structure isn’t applicable with hydrocarbons and molecules consisting of two atoms of the same element. Lewis structure isn’t suitable if:

  • Molecules have an odd number of electrons (e.g., NO).
  • Molecules in one or more atoms have more than eight electrons (e.g., SF6).
  • Molecules with less than eight electrons; an example is the BF3.

There are molecules with a polar bond, but the molecular geometry is symmetrical. As a result, they are nonpolar molecules by nature (examples: CO2, SO3). 

There are molecules with a nonpolar bond but are polar molecules by nature (examples: NCl3, ozone, water).

Final Thoughts on Determining Polar and Nonpolar Molecules

For many students, understanding bond polarity can be a hard part of their high school chemistry subject. To determine if something has a nonpolar or polar bond, there are rules and steps to follow. However, there are always exceptions. 

A molecule is polar if there’s a significant difference in the electronegativity charges between elements. The bonds don’t cancel each other out and are asymmetrical. 

A nonpolar molecule has no separation of electric charges or difference in electronegativity.  The bonds cancel each other out, are symmetrical, and there’s no lone electron pair. 

This topic will be easier to grasp with consistent practice and a peer or teacher to help you out.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.