N2 Lewis Structure

N2 Lewis Structure: Full Guide (2023 Updated)

Nitrogen (N2) is an odorless, colorless, and tasteless gas that makes up most of the Earth’s atmosphere. Nitrogen is located in Period 2 Group 5 of the Periodic Table.

To know more about the Nitrogen molecule, our team spent 48 hours gathering information about the Lewis dot structure of N2.

N2 Lewis Structure: What You Need To Know

The Lewis structure of the N2 would consist of two Nitrogen atoms connected by a triple bond. The octet rule states that nitrogen atoms must link three times. The N2 molecule is diatomic, 

Each Nitrogen atom has one lone pair of electrons. Nitrogen has five valence electrons in the N2 electron dot structure, classified as a group 5 on the periodic table. Align the two Nitrogens and then sandwich two valence electrons between them to make a chemical bond. There will be no center atom in the Lewis structure since both atoms have the same electronegativity. 

Since there is no center atom, begin to label atoms with lone pairs. There are four more lone pairs to the label on nitrogen atoms in total. On each nitrogen atom, take note of any remaining lone pairs. One nitrogen atom will take three lone pairs, and the remaining one will take one lone pair. 

N2 Lewis Structure: What You Need To Know

Steps In Drawing the N2 Lewis Structure

  • To create a Lewis structure, determine first the number of valence electrons in each atom. Nitrogen has a total of ten valence electrons—five electrons on its outermost valence shell.
  • After determining the total number of valence electrons., connect the atoms between electron pairs. Because both atoms have the same electronegativity value, the structure will not contain a central atom. 
  • Arrange the ten valence electrons and assign the valence electrons to each atom. Assign valence electrons to each atom using a graphic with five dots around each atom.
  • Arrange the remaining electrons and the lone pairs around terminal atoms with other atoms. Also, check for the lone and bonded pairs. 
  • Make a covalent link between the two Nitrogen atoms by lines. One line equals a single bond. There are two valence electrons in each bond. Each atom’s octet (eight electrons) is completed by sharing three pairs of valence electrons in a bond.

Understanding Its Properties & Structure

Understanding Its Properties & Structure

N2 Polarity

N2 is a nonpolar molecule with a diatomic structure due to its linear geometrical form. As a result, two atoms have the same electronegativity and share an equal amount of charge. The molecule has a net-zero dipole moment, indicating that it is nonpolar. 

N2 Molecular Geometry

N2 creates a triple covalent bond and undergoes sp hybridization. Because each atom has a steric number of two when one triple bond and one lone pair are counted, the diatomic N2 will have a linear molecular geometry and a bond angle of 180°.

Both atoms exert equal influence on the shared bonded atoms as a diatomic molecule, resulting in the nonpolar molecule.

Related Posts:

N2 Hybridization

The nitrogen atom’s valence-shell electron configuration is 2s2 2px1 2py1 2pz1.

The arrangement causes N2 sp hybridization.

Three half-filled 2p orbitals exist in the valence shell of the nitrogen atom. 

The sp-orbitals of both Nitrogen atoms overlap to create a connection.

The two p-orbitals on each atom, each having one valence electron, form a connection—the next head-to-head overlapping of p-orbitals yields one additional bond.

N2 Hybridization

N2 Bond Angle

Nitrogen is a nonpolar molecule with 180-degree bond angles. Both atoms exert equal impact on the shared bonded electrons as a linear diatomic molecule, resulting in the nonpolar molecule.

N2 Molecular Orbital Diagram

Each molecule has its electron configuration consisting of a sigma bond and a pi bond, known as molecular orbitals. The molecular orbital theory determines the stability order, magnetic nature, and the number of bonds in a molecule. The configuration of N2 is 1S2, *1S2, 2S2, *2S2, 2Px2, 2Py2, 2Pz1, according to the energy level diagram.


Nitrogen possesses five valence electrons in its outermost shell; it needs three more valence electrons to complete the octet. A nitrogen atom can complete its octet by sharing three valence electrons with another nitrogen atom, resulting in triple bonds. [1]

No, N2 does not have a double bond structure. A triple bond exists between two Nitrogen atoms in the N2 Lewis structure. Each bond consists of electron pairs from each connected N atom.

There are six binding electrons in the Lewis structure of N2. This bond connects the two N atoms that comprise one sigma and two π bonds. This bond is made up of two electrons that are shared.

Key Takeaways

In the Lewis structure of Nitrogen, there is a triple bond between nitrogen atoms. According to the octet rule, nitrogen atoms must connect three times. The molecule N2 is diatomic, meaning it is made up of two atoms of the same element. [2]

We use Lewis’s structure to explain the chemical bonding that exists between the atoms present in Nitrogen as well as the placement of the valence shell electrons. Lewis’s structure uses a chemical symbol to represent the location of an atom in a molecular model.


  1. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/introchem/chapter/double-and-triple-covalent-bonds/
  2. https://www.britannica.com/science/nitrogen/Properties-and-reaction
BF3 Lewis Structure

Boron Trifluoride (BF3) Lewis Structure, Hybridization & Shape

BF3 is an inorganic compound with an interesting behavior in every state of matter. It can be in a liquid state, highly soluble, but it can also be toxic when in a gaseous state as it creates white fumes in moist air.

Let us learn more about BF3, its molecular geometry, hybridization, bond angle, and how to draw the best Lewis Structure for it.

BF3 Lewis Structure: What You Need To Know

We need to know how to draw the Lewis Structure of Boron Trifluoride to find out the arrangement of the electrons in both molecules present.

will start with the periodic table and get the atomic number of Boron and Fluorine to calculate how many valence electrons are present in the chemical compound.

The computation will also present how these electrons bond (single bond or not) and the lone pairs if there are any created.

You will see how it violates the Octet Rule while drawing Lewis Structure.

BF3 Lewis Structure

Understanding Its Properties & Structure

Understanding Its Properties & Structure


Hybridization in pairs of electrons happens when you combine atomic orbitals and new hybrid orbitals. It will be explaining the bonding properties of the nucleus and its molecular geometry in the Lewis Structure.

BF3 has SP2 hybridization since Boron (1) requires one π (pi) bond to double bond, but it only formed three σ bonds per atom. Orbitals S- and P- in the outer shell of Boron mix to create another three SP2 equivalent hybrid orbitals.

Molecular Geometry

BF3 has fluorine atoms at the top of the equilateral triangle formed with Boron atoms. Thus, its molecular geometry is Trigonal Planar. You will see three atoms that single bond with the central atom. These are three BF bonds at 120o and in the same plane. You will not see three lone pairs in BF3 since all three electrons bonded with the Boron atom.

Also Read: BrF3 Molecular Geometry

Bond Angle

The polarity or non-polarity of a molecule depends highly on its structure and shape.

The bond angles of the electrons determine these. BF3 has a bond angle of 120°, with all atoms aligned in one plane. 

A fluorine atom is positioned at 120°, which is bonded with the center atom Boron in the Lewis Structure.

Based on the chemistry and VSEPR model, this is the best Lewis Structure formed with the single attachments to the central molecule.

Bond Angle


You can determine the polarity of the molecule with its electronegativity. In the case of Boron and Fluorine, their 0.5 electronegativities are categorized as nonpolar. If we look at the symmetrical structure and the geometry of BF3, it will result in a zero molecular dipole moment, which makes it nonpolar. Regardless of the Lewis Structures or Lewis base pairs of electrons, BF3 is nonpolar. 

Related Posts:

Drawing The Lewis Structure of BF3

In BF3, Boron is the least electronegative atom and will be used as the central atom. The Lewis Dot Structure will show you one Boron atom with three electrons in its last shell and three Fluorine atoms with seven electrons in its last shell. The computation will end with 24 total valence electrons, forming three B F bonds. 

Boron – 2, 3

Fluorine – 2, 7

3 + 7 (3) = 24

According to the Octet, Boron requires six valence electrons around its outermost shell, while Fluorine (2) needs 8. 

6 + 8 (3) = 30

Find the difference between the total valence electrons and required electrons.

30 – 24 = 6

This time, get the number of lone pairs from the two atoms by calculating the difference between bonding pairs electrons and the number of valence electrons. 

24 – 6 = 18

Once the number of valence electrons is computed, you place B as the central atom with three single bonds with F atoms. This will form your Lewis Structure.

Read: C2H2 Lewis Structure Guide


No, Fluorine will not be the center atom of BF3 because it is more electromagnetic than Boron. Also, Fluorine atoms never form double bonds but only assign all atoms to zero formal charges.

BF3 does not have a lone pair because there are only six valence electrons. Plus, it disobeys the octet rule since it has the second-period covalent molecules. You will find three bonded groups, meaning it has trigonal geometry, therefore, no lone pairs.

There are six valence electrons around Boron in BF3 based on the drawing of the Lewis structure. It means that Boron’s octal is not complete, which is a very rare instance. Therefore, BR3 is considered a Lewis acid.

Key Takeaways

BF3 or Boron Trifluoride is an inorganic compound that lacks Carbon. This created no lone pairs between the Boron atom and Fluorine. It can sometimes be confusing whether BF3 is polar or nonpolar because the three Fluorine atoms have much higher electronegativity than the Boron atom. 

BF3 Lewis Structure showed the total number of B F bonds and the total number of electrons present. It also showed the center atom formed single bonds in a trigonal planar shape. Therefore, each molecule, computations, and process that produced this Lewis Structure have followed every rule set in chemistry.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.


  1. https://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/5/boron
  2. https://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/9/fluorine
Best Stem Toys For 5 Year Olds

What’s the Best Stem Toy For 5-Year-Old Kids? Reviews & Guide

Most parents believe that teaching basic concepts of STEM is not suited for kids ages 5, but in reality, the learning curve of young children is at its critical best during this period. 

Our team spent 48 hours testing the best STEM toys for 5 year olds to help you build your budding scientists!


Kinetic Sand


Magna-Tiles 100-Piece Clear Colors Set


CoolToys Monkey Balance Cool Math Game

Top 10 Stem Toys For 5 Year Olds

1. Kinetic Sand

Kinetic sand is one of the most popular educational toys for children.

Unlike many STEM toys that impart textbook concepts and STEM skills, this fun learning toy focuses on hands-on learning and imaginative play.

The kinetic sand toy is a perfect gift for kids who go wild with their building skills.

The toy encourages open-ended building with their imagination as the only limit.



2. Magna-Tiles 100-Piece Clear Colors Set

This STEM toy teaches one of its core concepts — engineering!

Using the 100 pieces of magnetic tiles, kids can build structures of all shapes and sizes. 

The Magna-Tiles building kit includes magnetic pieces of various polygonal shapes that easily stick and detach, making the building process easier and so much fun!



3. CoolToys Monkey Balance Cool Math Game

Math skills are usually the hardest concepts that kids ages 5 and below must learn, but this toy surely makes it easier to teach!

This robot monkey from cool toys teaches kids about counting by acting as math manipulatives. 

Using the small monkeys, kids should match them with the number in question at the same time to balance the scales.

What a great tool to train critical thinking skills!



4. Snap Circuits Beginner

This toy from Snap Circuits Jr is true to its name, as kids can create electrical circuits by snapping the pieces together!

From making music to turning up the fan, these circuit challenges designed to train your child’s curious minds would surely do the trick!

This hands-on toy is also a fun way to ignite your child’s love for electronics.



5. 4M Kidzlabs Crystal Mining Kit

Learning STEM is about the impartation of concepts and the reinforcement of gross and fine motor skills.

Kidzlabs’ mining science kit allows a child to unearth magnificent crystals within the plaster rocks.

Unlike building kits, this STEM toy does the contrary.

We’re sure that your son loves to break stuff so let them have that fun with this toy and discover the gems underneath!



6. Shapemags Magnet Building Tiles Magnetic Blocks

If you’re looking for a Magna-Tiles alternative for your child, then this option is the closest you can get.

Develop creativity and other STEM skills like balance, engineering, and problem-solving and create the most wonderful structures!

Shapemags building kit is a great option for hands-on STEM learning in a fun and interactive manner.



7. Code & Go Robot Mouse

In this technology era, learning to code at a young age is a must-have quality.

Good thing Learning Resources offers coding robots that teach programming logic to children!

Kids can now learn basic computer science concepts minus the screen time.

From easy trails, coding challenges up to complicated labyrinths; your child is in control of everything.



8. Botley the Coding Robot

Botley is another coding robot to look out for and arguably one of the best STEM toys for teaching programming logic.

While most learning toys that teach code are standalone, Botley comes with one reversible tile-board and other peripherals to support your kids’ playtime!

The 42 included cards make an awesome board game for Botley; plus, the cool robot traces all black lines on its path so kids can also perform great science experiments with it!



9. SmartGames Castle Logix Game

Another building kit that cultivates the budding scientist and engineers in kids, Castle Logix, is a science building kit where kids build what the challenge booklet dictates.

Using pieces of different lengths, your child has to recreate the castle indicated therein.

This is a fun tool to stimulate children’s natural creativity. Plus, Castle Logix is one fun STEM toy for kids where the educational insights are learned hands-on.



10. SmartGames Color Code Puzzle Game

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math toys commonly deal with creativity and basic STEM concepts.

In contrast, this toy focuses on training color discrimination and logic in kids.

Watch them solve the 100 puzzle challenges using visual perception as they have fun learning about different colors.

This is quite the same with the STEM toys for kids offered by Fat Brain Toys, but with more variety.



Buying Guide

buying guide


Affordability is always an ideal quality for a STEM toy. When looking to purchase gifts for a Science kid, choose the ones that offer the best learning process without breaking the bank. The top 10 list above features some of the most affordable options around, so choose one that can help propel your child’s learning.

Ease of Use

Kids aged 5 are still on the verge of discovery and might need some help along the way. The best toys to get them are the ones they can operate by themselves without much parental support needed (although it is advisable for parents always to keep an eye on their kids during playtime).

Safe To Use

Children at 5 are typically aware of choking hazards, so that’s not much of an issue. However, it would be best to steer away from toys with very small parts or sharp objects that can cause any unwanted injury. It’s a good thing that most STEM toys are safe, so parents don’t have to worry much about their child’s safety.

Age Appropriate

Toys should align with the level of understanding and the level of difficulty that your kids can handle. While simple color discrimination toys like the SmartGames Color Code Puzzle might be fun and enjoyable for 5-year-olds, some children might find it extremely hard to complete a Rubik’s cube — even though both STEM toys tackle logic, visual perception, and problem-solving. 

Also Read:


Durability is one common factor that matters when choosing STEM learning toys. Not only does this ensure that the toys will last longer, but it also assures even if kids drop the toys from their clumsy hands, they won’t break easily.

Another feature you might want to consider is choosing toys that are not “one-time-use.” For example, the Kidzlabs Crystal Mining Kit is a one-time-use toy, although it is indeed effective to reel children into the world of Archaeology. If that’s not your style, then go for toys that kids can use for an indefinite period of time, like a kid-friendly microscope with extra-large eyepieces.


  • Increases Cognitive Development – A STEM toy should facilitate learning and your kid’s brain development.
  • Introduces The Sciences – STEM toys are called that way for a reason. Not only should they increase your child’s mental capacity but also introduce them to the key pillars of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math).
  • Hones Motor Skills & Coordination – Practicing the brain is just as important as practicing dexterity and hand-eye coordination. A STEM toy must also support this learning.
  • Provides Interactive Bonding Time – STEM instructive toys typically advocate against the screen culture. That’s why interactiveness is important because it promotes imagination. [1]
  • Creates Opportunities For Creativity – Art is a natural element of STEM, and this fact must be upheld when looking for educational toys. [2]
  • Narrows The Gender Gap – The toys should never be gender-specific, rather it should promote neutrality to invite more women and build more women scientists to participate in the STEM workforce.


Yes, LEGOs can be considered STEM toys because they can effectively teach children about Engineering. They can also train their motor abilities, creativity, spatial reasoning, and problem-solving – all of which are instrumental for kids’ cognitive development. Here’s our list of the best science kits for 6-year-olds

Yes, STEM toys can teach kids about Math and Science. These are typically the secret messages embedded underneath the guise of a harmless toy. Toys that promote STEM are powerful because they are fun and impart critical concepts.

Our Choice for the Best Stem Toys for 5-Year-Olds Is…

STEM learning is a critical aspect that kids ages 5 should start acquiring while young. The educational value that these toys bring to the table can be carried over to adulthood.

After intensive review and deliberation, we conclude that the best STEM toy for 5-year-olds is the Kinetic Sand. Aside from inciting learning and curiosity, it also promotes open-ended play for the young ones with 10 tools and molds to use! It’s also safe to use since it’s non-toxic, hypoallergenic, and made from natural sand. 

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.

OUR # 1 Recommendation

Kinetic Sand

Best Lab Shoes

What are the Best Laboratory Shoes For Men & Women?

Laboratory, hospitals, and clinic workers need to keep themselves safe. Not just from sickness and diseases but also from other hazards and threats within their working environment. Wearing the proper shoes will keep their feet from those mentioned harms, and it is also company policy.

To make sure you pick the right pair for your job, our team researched the best lab shoes in the market and listed them down on this roundup.


Crocs Unisex-Adult Bistro Clog


HKR Lightweight Mesh Non-Slip Work Shoes


Sticky Comfortable Work Shoes for Women

Top 10 Shoes For Laboratory Work

1. Crocs Unisex-Adult Bistro Clog

Crocs have a slip-on design, plus 100% synthetic materials that make it comfortable and bring structural support.

It has proper arch support and is slip-resistant.

These are easy to clean, and it also has an enclosed toe design that can save your feet from spills.

You can be sure that these laboratory shoes can keep you from physical hazards while providing comfort.



2. HKR Lightweight Mesh Non-Slip Work Shoes

HKR Lightweight Mesh Non-slip work shoes are a popular choice if you look for a comfortable shoe.

Its knit mesh fabric, both on the upper and liner parts, makes it great in a professional environment.

It has a protective toe and features high slip resistance, making it safe to use every day.



3. Sticky Comfortable Work Shoes for Women

Sticky created shoe types that would fit individuals who work on their feet for a long time.

The rubber sole provides comfort and ankle mobility. It highly absorbs shock, and it has a reliable non-slip outsole that also works in outside environments.

It is tested to withstand protruding objects and impacts from sharp materials.



4. Dansko Women's Professional Clog

Dansko has created pairs of comfortable shoes with reliable arch support for the wearer for the entire day.

It features an instep with a padded collar for ease of use, especially when working in a lab. It also features a safety toe and a breathable PU foam footbed with temperature control.

It has breathable leather and fabric uppers. Shock absorption is very similar to athletic footwear.

Plus, it also reduces foot fatigue because of its rocker bottom.



5. Clarks Women's Cheyn Madi Slip-On Loafer

Clarks has been around since 1825, so there are no questions about their shoe-making capabilities.

They have ladies’ pumps, men’s shoes, and other types of shoes popular worldwide but can be used as a slip-on loafer in research facilities, hospitals, clinics, and laboratories. 

It is 100% leather which is great for protection, and it also features an ortholite sock liner.

It also has synthetic uppers and a sole made of synthetic material.



6. Skechers (Eldred Shoe)

Skechers is a known shoe brand that also produces reliable laboratory footwear. The Eldred Shoe, particularly, is made of 100% leather.

It has a leather upper and has memory foam insole. A good fit for laboratory work because it provides protection and comfort simultaneously. 

It also fits the dress code while giving a fancy look because of the leather Ghillie lacing system.

It is also made with a roomy toe box to give the wearer a relaxing feel when used.



7. Skechers Mens Oswald - Balder

This product from Skechers focuses more on being slip-resistant.

The rubber sole and outsole provide good ground grip.

It has a shock-absorbent footbed, and it also has ventilating ports on its medial side. It has a flexible sole that prevents heel pain. 

And it also has a safety toe feature.

The PU insole is removable for easy inside cleaning. The materials used are also good quality and waterproof.



8. Dansko XP 2.0 Clog

This is another product from Dansko, made for laboratory work and the likes.

It is made of genuine leather and has a rubber outsole, unlike other cheap upper fabric shoes that do not withstand sharp and protruding objects. 

These are made of durable genuine leather with a roomy toe box for your toes to wiggle around.

It fits the company’s dress code and is very light to wear.

It features a soft padded tongue for easier cleaning.



9. Reebok Sublite Cushion RB045 Work Boot

Reebok also made their own work boot shoe styles. It is made for lab work, hospital, and clinic settings.

It has a durable rubber outsole with a memory foam footbed that provides great contours for comfortable cushioning. 

Though these are lightweight, it still features an alloy toe cap for additional weight reduction and flexibility.

It also features an anti-fatigue rocker bottom, making it great to use as running shoes apart from research facility uniforms.



10. Avenger Work Boots

These boots are among the most trusted footwear used for laboratory work, construction, restaurant, and other environments requiring full safety and protection.

It boasts durable materials, making these shoes for work range dependable.

Its ergonomic design is also one of the features that make it well-loved.



Buying Guide

buying guide

Comfort & Support

When looking for the best shoes for laboratory work, a feature you need to look for is comfort. It should give you a relaxing feel as you step onto it. The proper cushioning and contour are necessary to provide comfort and support, especially since the wearer is bound to be on their feet for a long period. Search for those approved by APMA (American Podiatric Medical Association).


Laboratories pose great threats because of chemicals (1) that can spill or are already on the floor. Wearing closed-style shoes with a leather or synthetic upper is a necessity. Find uppers that provide breathability and comfort simultaneously and have ventilation to keep the lining of your shoes cool and dry. You can choose from canvas uppers, leather or synthetic uppers, or one with a mesh upper for as long as your company approves it. 

Slip Resistance 

Searching for the best shoes that provide excellent slip resistance is a must. You can look for a thick rubber outsole because it has a strong grip and firm traction. These should be made of premium materials guaranteed to meet ASTM standards. Search for lab shoes with an oil-safe rubber outsole, protective footwear that can withstand hazardous chemicals. 


The perfect laboratory footwear is a pair that brings structural support and something that lasts long. One with a wide heel supports the user’s weight steadily, which translates to unnecessary foot twists. It extends its lifespan and makes it durable. Also, ensure that the manufacturer is known for using quality materials. 


The product’s durability relies greatly on the materials used in creating these lab shoes. There are many dangers and chemicals on the laboratory floors. Therefore, you need to search for the one made of high-quality materials. Also, search for those tested numerous times before it is brought to the market. 

Shock Absorbency

Good lab footwear should have high shock absorbency. The force of impact that goes to your heal makes forward movement difficult. High shock absorbency will allow the kinetic energy to spread evenly in your body each time you take a step. 


A laboratory work shoe needs to be sturdy and comfortable, but it should protect the wearer most of all. Outsoles should be slip-resistant as laboratories are prone to have chemical and water spills. 

Protective Features

You can find many protective features in lab shoes, such as a steel toe, while others have alloy protective or composite toe. Others have an open-cell polyurethane footbed or memory foam footbed. While some features electrical shocks and chemical hazards protection. 


The cost of the laboratory shoes would depend on the materials used. While you need comfort with shoes for laboratory work that athletic shoe types provide, this comfort decreases in time and costs higher than those that durable rubber outsole.

Also Read:


Lab technicians wear non-porous shoes with water and bloodborne pathogen resistance. It should also be closed-toe and closed-heel with a chemical-resistant sole. The best shoes for laboratory and other modern working environments should also have a chemical resistant layer and are made of electrical hazard safe materials.

You should never wear an open-toe or shoes with open-heels when doing laboratory work. Examples of these are flip-flops, clogs, and sandals. Avoiding uncomfortable high-heeled shoes is advisable.

You can wear sneakers to the lab, provided that these are lab sneakers not made of cloth or mesh materials. Laboratory work is prone to chemical spills, and sneakers may provide great comfort, but it has limited protection.

And The #1 Lab Shoes Are...

Our number 1 lab shoes are Crocs Unisex-Adult Bistro Clog. Most of these products on the lists are made to protect the wearer, but we considered how these are made extra-safe caused us to decide to place them on the top. The electrical hazard safe materials and having slip resistance design made it perfect for laboratory work and the likes. 

Quality and comfort are also what Crocs boasts about, apart from its stylish designs. This is a laboratory work shoe, but regular individuals wear shoes like these to ensure their everyday safety.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.

OUR # 1 Recommendation

Crocs Unisex-Adult Bistro Clog

Electronic Geometry of H2O

Water (H2O) Molecular & Electronic Geometry of H2O

Water has a basic Lewis structure, making it one of the most basic chemical substances to comprehend. 

And now, to further know more interesting information about H2O and its electronic geometry, Lewis structure, and others, our team did some research about the structure of H2O.

Understanding the Electronic Geometry of H2O

The H2O molecule is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. It forms a bond angle of 104.5°. As a result, it is feasible to determine that it is bent in the form of an H2O molecule.

According to Lewis’s structure, a lone pair exists when all of the atom’s valence electrons are unpaired. 

The H2O molecule’s Lewis structure reveals two solitary sigma bonds between the O and H. Additionally, and these connections leave two lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen atom, which adds significantly to the H2O molecule’s tetrahedral bent geometrical configuration.

H2O molecule structure

Closer Look at the H2O Structure

Closer Look at the H2O Structure

Electronic Geometry

Water is classified as tetrahedral in terms of electron-group geometry with four electron groups. The four electron groups are formed by the two solitary hydrogen bonds and the lone pairs of Oxygen. Due to lone pairs in water, its molecular structure is twisted. [1]

Molecular Geometry/Shape 

Any molecule’s molecular geometry is determined by its Lewis structure. Oxygen creates two single sigma bonds with H atoms in the H2O molecule. Then, The two lone pairs of electrons push these Hydrogen atoms on the Oxygen atom.

Due to the repulsion forces of lone pairs being greater than those of bonded pairs, the arrangement of atoms is deformed. As a result, the water molecule’s molecular geometry is angular or v-shaped.

Lewis Structure

In contrast to Hydrogen atoms, Oxygen atoms will always occupy the central atom. Put O in the middle, with H on either side. It takes one more electron to stabilize each of these Hydrogen atoms. Oxygen also requires two valence electrons to complete its octet rule.

Both Hydrogen atoms will share one valence electron to produce a stable structure. Show a single bond on both sides to demonstrate electron sharing. O and H molecules are solitary bonds in the Lewis structure of H2O.

Thus, this molecule has two lone pairs and two bonding pairs. The Lewis structure of H2O is drawn to achieve each atom’s insufficiency.


Valence Electrons

The H2O molecule has an overall valence electrons count of eight valence electrons. This result was obtained by multiplying the total number of valence electrons in this molecule by the total valence electrons in the Hydrogen and Oxygen atoms.

The total number of valence electrons in a hydrogen atom is two valence electrons since there are two hydrogen atoms. By contrast, the oxygen atom forms a total of six valence electrons. As a result, the H2O molecule has a total number of eight valence electrons.

Bond Angle

For molecules with a tetrahedral geometry, the bond angle is 109°; however, when the molecular geometry of water is distorted owing to the existence of lone pairs of electrons, the bond angle decreases from 109° to 104.5°, indicating that the molecule is deformed.

Dipole Moments

Dipole moments occur when one atom is more electronegative than another, resulting in that atom tugging more firmly on the shared pair of electrons, or when one atom has a lone pair of electrons and the difference of electronegativity. [2]

One of the most common examples is the water molecule, one oxygen atom, and two hydrogen atoms.

The differences in electronegativity and lone electrons give Oxygen a partial negative charge and each hydrogen atom a partial positive charge.



Water is a polar molecule. Due to the lone pair, H2O results in a bent-shaped molecule as per VSEPR theory so that the vectors representing each bond’s dipole moment do not cancel out. They are making the water a polar molecule.


Each O and H atom in a water molecule has a sigma bond and no pi bonds. As previously stated, sigma bonds are the strongest type of covalent bond. When two atoms share electrons and establish bonds, hybridized orbitals arise. These orbitals aid in the prediction of the molecule’s hybridization. Here, we shall examine the hybridization of the Oxygen atom, which shares two electrons to complete its outer shell from its valence electrons with both Hydrogen atoms. 

Three 2p and one 2s orbital of Oxygen are hybridized due to lone pairs and two pairs of bonding electrons. And because four of Oxygen’s orbitals are hybridized, H2O’s hybridization is sp3.

Related Posts:

Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion Theory

Electron-Group Geometry

The H2O molecule possesses four electron groups. Hence it is classified as tetrahedral in terms of electron-group geometry. The two single bonds to Hydrogen and the lone pairs of Oxygen constitute the four-electron groups. Water’s molecular form is bent because it has lone pairs. According to the VSEPR hypothesis, electrons try to reduce repulsion. Therefore the lone pairs are close to one another. 

Molecular Geometry

The atomic number of Oxygen is 8. It possesses six valence electrons and requires more electrons for the octet rule. The atomic number of a hydrogen atom is one, and it takes one valence electron to create a duet configuration. 

Therefore, two hydrogen atoms create one single bond with the center oxygen atom. The valence shell of the oxygen atom has two electron pairs. Therefore, according to the VSEPR hypothesis, water has a v-shaped or bent shape.


Any molecule’s molecular geometry is determined by its Lewis structure. Due to the repulsive forces between lone pairs, the molecular shape and form of the water are bent.

In water, the oxygen atom has two lone pairs. When the bond angle of the H-O-H bond is 104.5°, these two lone pairs reject the H-O bonded pairs so strongly that the molecule is in its lowest energy configuration. As a result, the water molecule is non-linear.

Water is a polar molecule. Due to the unequal distribution of electrons among the atoms and the asymmetrical form of the molecule, water molecules have two poles – a positive electric charge on the pole side of H and a negative charge on the pole side of Oxygen.

In Summary

Water is one of the elements that have a basic Lewis structure. Lewis structure helps determine the bond produced and electrons in the bond formation. The bonding pair of electrons are the electrons involved in the bond formation. Nonbonding electron pairs are those that do not participate in any bond formation.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.


  1. https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry_Textbook_Maps/Supplemental_Modules_(Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry)/Chemical_Bonding/Lewis_Theory_of_Bonding/Geometry_of_Molecules
  2. https://study.com/academy/lesson/dipoles-dipole-moments-molecule-polarity.html
CO32- Polar or Nonpolar

Carbonate Ion (CO32) – Is It Polar or Nonpolar?

CO32- or Carbonate is a polyatomic ion. It is made of three Oxygen atoms bonded with the Central Atom, which is Carbon. These bonded atoms are polar in nature, but CO32 is nonpolar.

How did this happen? 

Let us dissect the facts and learn more about CO32-, its electronegativity, geometric shapes and charges, and its Lewis Structure to determine why we say such.

CO32: Is It Polar Or Nonpolar?

CO32- or Carbonate Ion is a Carbon Oxoanion and a base conjugate of hydrogen carbonate.

When Carbonic Acid (CO2) dissolves in water, inorganic Carbonate is formed. However, CO32- belongs to both inorganic and organic classes. 

CO32- is made of the Central atom, Carbon, and Oxygen atoms which have formed polar bonds.

Based on the Pauling scale, the charge difference between the atoms that have bonded is 0.89.

However, it has an asymmetric shape that causes the charges to be distributed evenly. Thus it is nonpolar in nature.

CO32-Carbonate Ion

Closer Look at its Properties

Closer Look at its Properties

CO32- Bond Angle/Nature

To determine whether CO32- is polar or nonpolar, you need to check the periodic table to determine which bonds are present. Based on the table, the charges of Oxygen and Carbon have a difference of 0.89. If we base it on the ruling of the Pauling Scale, CO32- is polar because of the bond between the Oxygen atoms and Carbon atoms. 

CO32- Molecular Symmetry & Shape

Based on VSEPR theory, as the Oxygen atoms repel each other, it spreads away from each other in a consistent manner. The Central Carbon Atom is bonded with three Oxygen atoms in CO32, resulting in equal bond angles of 120°. This makes the structure of CO32- symmetrical in nature and has Trigonal Planar geometry or shape. 

CO32- Electronegativity

You can find two elements in Carbonate (1), Carbon and Oxygen. Oxygen has an electronegativity value of 3.44, while Carbon only has 2.55. Since we follow the common procedure in choosing the central atom, the one with the least electronegativity will be considered the Central Atom. Therefore, the Central Atom of Carbonate Ion is Carbon. 

CO32- Negative 2 Charge

The nature of CO32- is symmetrical, which means its polar bonds are evenly distributed. This also means that it has zero net dipole moment because of induced charges but has canceled out. Basing it on the dipoles in opposite directions would show that CO32- contains a negative two charge. 

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CO32- Net Dipole Moment

Based on processes, dipole moments refers to the electrons distributed among the bonded atoms. Dipole moment exists if there is a difference between the electrons with polar and nonpolar bonds, which concludes that polar molecules have net di[pole moment. Carbonate, Carbon electrons, and Oxygen electrons were distributed evenly, making it planar. Therefore, it has no net dipole moment.  

CO32- Molecular Geometry

With Carbonate, we use the AXn notation.

A= Central Atom

X= number of atoms around the Central Atom

n= number of bonds that are attached to the Central Atom

Ex= the number of lone pairs of the central atom

If we compute for the Molecular Geometry of Carbonate

A= Carbon atom,

X= Oxygen atom,

n= 3,

Ex= 0.

We will reach the notation AX3.

Using the VSEPR chart, AX3 notation in CO32- shows a Trigonal Planar with a bond angle of approximately 120°.

CO32- Hybridization

Atomic Orbital has a special function in an atom’s quantum mechanics and theory. When chemical bonding occurs, AOs combine and create bonds inside the molecule and form hybridized orbitals. 

In the Lewis Structure of CO32, a single O atom bond has a negative charge while the double-bonded ones have no charge value. You will see three sigmas and one pi around the central C atom. 

The formula below shows how to compute the Hybridization value.

V = 4, M = 0, C = 0, A = 2.

H = 0.5 ( 4 + 0 – 0 + 2 ) = 3.

CO32- Lewis Structure

To develop the Lewis Structure of CO32-, we follow the steps and draw an appropriate CO32- diagram. 

Step 1: Find out the total Valence Electron present (based on the periodic table)

= 4 + 6*3 + 2

= 24.

Step 2: Find out the molecule’s Central atom.

Since Carbon is the least electronegative among the atoms found in Carbonate Ion, it becomes the central atom. 

Step 3: Drawing the Molecule’s Skeletal Diagram

Using dots as valence electrons around the atomic symbols, you can place the corresponding number of valence electrons around three Oxygen atoms surrounding the Central Atom, Carbon.

Step 4: The Formed Bond formation

The total Valence Electron is 24, while there are two shared electrons between Carbon and the three Oxygen atoms, which have single bonds. Therefore the Octet Rule has been fulfilled with Oxygen Atoms but not with Carbon that only has six electrons.

Step 5: Formal Charge

The formula for formal charge:

Carbon= 4 – 0.5*8 – 0 = 4 – 4 = 0.

Each O Atom Formal Charge= 6 – 0.5*2 – 6 = 6 – 1 – 6 = -1.

Each O Atom with double bond with carbon = 6 – 0.5*4 – 4 = 6 – 2 – 4 = 0.


Carbonate ion is a covalent compound that has a negative two net charge. This is a negative ion or anion.

The bond of CO32- is polar in nature. Based on the Pauling scale, the charge difference between the atoms of Oxygen and Carbon is 0.89. Therefore, the bond is polar.

There are three lone pairs in CO32- or Carbonate. It comes from the Oxygen atom since the central atom, Carbon, does not contain lone pairs.

CO32- Polarity Result

Carbonate (CO32-) is an organic and inorganic class, making it a versatile yet complex compound. What makes CO32- more interesting is how these bonds. As CO32- ion, these are polar in nature because all three Oxygen bonds are polar. If this is the only basis, it will make Carbonate polar. 

However, these bonds have negative charges and constituents that are also evenly distributed because of their symmetric shape, causing zero net dipole moment. Because of that, by nature, CO32- ion is nonpolar.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.


  1. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Carbonate#section=2D-Structure
CO2 Lewis Structure

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Lewis Structure & Shape

When we were younger, our understanding of CO2 was usually associated with breathing oxygen and releasing CO2. That is true, but Carbon Dioxide is not just the colorless gas that smells. 

It is also a good starting point in learning how to fully understand the CO2 Lewis Structure and Molecular Geometry.

Understanding the CO2 Lewis Structure

You need to understand the Lewis Structure or Lewis Dot Structure of a molecule to find out how the atoms form bonds and produce the shape of the molecule. For CO2, the Best Lewis Structure is to find the charged atoms. 

The number of valence electrons of a carbon atom is four which forms four bonds. The CO2 Lewis Structure is where the central carbon atom is the central atom, the least electronegative atom with O surrounded by four dots.

The total valence electrons, including valence shells, are eight electrons pairs with no lone pair.

CO2 Lewis Structure

Closer Look at the Structure

Closer Look at the Structure


CO2 has SP Hybridization. Carbon atoms have a different electronic configuration from Oxygen atoms which affects CO2’s SP hybridization. This changes when the electrons are in their excited state, where it becomes 1s2 2s1 2p3 where one electron goes to each p-orbital. 

The hybridization between 2s orbitals and one of the p-orbitals will form 2sp orbitals, which resulted in sigma bonds formation. This will form the sigma bond because of the two p-orbitals that are overlapping.

Molecular Geometry

CO2 has an AX2 molecule based on the VSEPR theory making the molecular geometry of CO2 linear. The linear molecular geometry has a symmetrical structure with bond angles of 180 degrees once it takes its linear shape. The valence shell electron pairs also cause repulsive forces hence the shape of the molecule.

Molecular Orbital (MO) Diagram

In a Molecular Orbital Diagram, the 2s orbital of oxygen is nonbonding because of the high energy difference between carbon and oxygen atoms.

Based on the rules of the Lewis Structure, all 16 electrons are filled upon bond formation, but the nonbonding orbitals remain vacant, as in the case of CO2.

Molecular Orbital (MO) Diagram

Bond Angle

CO 2 has double bonds, coming from Carbon and Oxygen. Two oxygen atoms are at the terminal ends of the bond, while the central carbon atom has an angle bond length of 180°. There are eighth electron pairs in this bond and no lone pair as shown in the Lewis Structures. 


The CO2 molecular geometry is linear in shape, which means that the double bond has the same influence on the charge, making CO 2 a nonpolar molecule. There is no dipole moment generated between the two oxygen atoms making this not a polar molecule. Carbon Dioxide(1) has two double bonds, which contribute to its linear geometry. 

Also Read:

Preparation Process

There are various processes in preparing CO 2.

1. This is where calcium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid, which is a very common method used in laboratories. 

2HCl + CaCO3 ——–> CO2 + CaCl2 + H2O

2. Mixture of methane and oxygen

CH4 + 2O2 ——-> CO2 + 2H2O

3. This process uses combustion, where carbon-based fuels are produced through thermal decomposition. Calcium Carbonate goes through the heating process and forms quicklime which is commonly used in industries. 

CaCO3 ——-> CaO + CO2

4. With the use of Carbonic Acid through decomposition. 

H2CO3 ——–> CO2 + H2O

Molar Mass

Carbon Dioxide also known as CO2 has a molar mass of 44.009 g/mol with a density of 1562 Kg/m3.

Acid or Base

CO2 or carbon dioxide is considered as acid or can even be called Lewis Acid.

The resonance structure accepts lone pairs of electrons, but the three lone pairs of electrons are in the oxygen molecule.

There are no lone pairs of electrons in CO 2. Although, when dissolved in water, CO 2 takes the form of carbonic acid using this formula. 


CO2 carbon dioxide Acid or Base

6 Steps on How to Draw CO2’s Lewis Structure

Steps on How to Draw CO2’s Lewis Structure
  1. Calculate the total valence electrons found in a molecule. 
      • Carbon Valence Electron=4
      • Oxygen Valence electrons: 6*2 = 12 
      • Total number of valence electrons = 16
  1. Find the central atom, which is usually the one with the highest bonding sites, is the Carbon atom. Draw four dots around it.
  2. The remaining electrons, beginning with the electronegative atoms and then the electropositive, should complete the octet rule of the atoms. 
  3. Since an oxygen atom needs extra electrons, the carbon atoms share electrons with the oxygen atom and form a double bond. This central atom will now have a double bond with the oxygen atom. 
  4. Two parallel lines on both these atoms are an indication of the double bonds. 
  5. The last part is to make sure that the atom’s lowest possible formal charge is achieved. Below is the formula for calculating the formal charges. FC = VE – [LPE – ½(BE)]


CO2 is a linear molecule as there are no lone pairs since there are four electrons bonded. Two double bonds are trying to get as far apart as they can. These are atoms that have a formal charge, but not all the atoms have an octet configuration.

The VSEPR shape of CO2 is Tetrahedral since multiple bonds, either a double or triple bond, take one electron from the final total. The same atoms are recognized by VSEPR, which can be seen in the Lewis Structure.

CO 2 has two electron domains that consist of bonding pairs. One carbon atom is the center atom, while the Oxygen atom has two lone pairs each. The valence electrons on each carbon atom are four which are double bonding with the oxygen atoms.

Key Takeaways

Carbon Dioxide or CO 2 is not only a contributing factor to greenhouse gas in Earth’s atmosphere because there are many uses for this trace gas. Understanding the individual atoms and CO2 Lewis Structure will give you a better grasp of its purpose. 

The CO2 Lewis Structure can be confusing initially, but if you can find out the valence electrons of both carbon atom and the oxygen atoms, the Lewis Structure, its electron density, and molar mass will no longer be a confusing aspect for you.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.


  1. https://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/carbon-dioxide/
Lewis Structure of SO2

Sulfur Dioxide Lewis Structure, Shape & Molecular Geometry

Understanding the Lewis Structure of a compound element is necessary to understand how the molecule and the atoms came up with its shape, geometry and how it emerged into such. You will better understand the origins of SO2 from Oxygen atoms and Sulfur and its uses if you can know its source.

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2): A Brief Description

Sulfur dioxide, or Sulphur Dioxide as spelled in Commonwealth English, is a toxic chemical compound that causes the smell of burning matches.

Normally, this originates from volcanic activities or produces as by-products to extract copper and incinerating fossil fuels that are sulfur-bearing. 

This is a colorless inorganic gas but has a weak acid solution when mixed with water.

Sulfuric acid is a toxic gas that can cause respiratory health problems.


What You Need To Know

What You Need To Know

Lewis Structure 

Drawing Lewis Structure of SO2 or Sulfur Dioxide will first require you to get the total valence electrons on both Sulfur and Oxygen. Once that is done, all should be arranged on the outermost shell of Sulphur. There are six valence electrons for the two, Sulfur and Oxygen, and based on the Octet Rule, if there are lone pairs or nonbonding electrons, it can lose or gain and share atoms until it is finally complete. 


With Sulfur Dioxide, Oxygen atoms contain one sigma bond and two lone pairs the same as Sulfur atoms. Therefore the hybridization of SO2 is SP2. You will clearly see the transformation and explanation after you draw the skeleton structure of the molecule where the sulfur atom and oxygen atoms create a double bond.

Molecular Geometry

To understand Molecular Geometry better, understand the positions and number of electrons distributed among Sulfur and Oxygen.

A sulfur atom on the outer level has six electrons, and four are used by Oxygen for each bond.

That leaves a total number of ten electrons in five pairs.

One lone pair is left while two double bonds form as a unit, making the Bent or V shape.


Molar Mass

You can calculate the molar mass by using the usual formula n=N/NA (then N=n*NA). N is the number of atoms, while A stands for Avogadro’s constant, which is 6,023×10^23. This will give us the result of 64.066 g/mol as the molar mass of SO2. 

Electron Geometry

The electron geometry of SO2 is trigonal planar. This is not similar to molecular geometry, where only the total number of atoms is considered to determine its shape. Electron geometry includes all the pairs of electrons, even the lone pairs. With SO2, the pairs of bonding electrons are arranged at an angle of 120 degrees.


There is an imbalance charge across other atoms in the molecule, making Sulfur Dioxide polar. There is polarization because Sulfur pulls the charge of the molecule to its side while gaining partial negative charge and not Oxygen since it is the least electronegative atom, making SO2 a polar molecule.

Bond Angle

Looking at the molecular geometry of SO2, the bond angle is at 120°. This means that the o-orbitals are also almost perfect SP2 orbitals. Although this may be confusing since there are different bonds, a double bond and a single bond is present, including triple bonds of the molecule, it still comes up with the same bond angles on all.

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5 Step By Step Construction of SO2's Lewis Structure

5 Step By Step Construction of SO2's Lewis Structure

1. Find The Total Valence Shells’ Electrons

The two molecules found on this compound belong to the VIA elements; therefore, they have six valence electrons, multiply it with the number of atoms found on each molecule and then add the products.

  • Valence electrons from two oxygen atoms = 6 * 2 = 12
  • Valence electrons from one sulfur atom = 6 * 1 = 6
  • Total valence electrons = 12 + 6 = 18

2. Determine The Total Electrons Pairs

Once you find the number of electron pairs, you divide the total valence electrons by two. You have six 

SO2 total electron pairs /2= 12/2= 9 

3. Center Atom Selection

In finding which should be the center atom, the one with the highest valence will be considered. For SO2, Sulfur has the higher valence among the two atoms. You will see the bond order, single bonds form, and double.

4. Mark Lone Pairs On Atoms

In the S-O bond, you will see that there are two of them.

In marking a lone pair, determine how many are left.

Begin with the valence electrons on the outside of the oxygen atom, which should show two bonds.

There will be six valence electron pairs from Oxygen atoms which will leave one valence electron pair left.

That will be marked as a lone pair under the Sulfur atom.


5. Check The Stability And Minimize Charges On Atoms

In order to find out what the most stable structure is, the charges of the atoms should be established in their lowest form possible. Since the lone pair is already marked and those bonded, it will be easier to mark the charges of each atom. It will use this formula:

Formal Charge = No. of valence electrons – No. of Bonds – 2 X (No. of lone pairs) = 6-2-(2×2) = 0

Other Similar Lewis Structures of So2

Other Similar Lewis Structures of So2

There are many similar Lewis Structures of SO2 depending on the shape, geometry, and lone pairs. The SO2 Lewis Structure of water, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone has the same shape, which is bent. Hydrogen sulfide, water, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide have two sigma bonds. Lastly, Ozone and SO2 have one lone pair on their central atom.

Sulfur Dioxide’s Effect on Humans

This is a useful chemical, but it has harmful and toxic effects on a human being. Sulfur Dioxide has a negative reaction when inhaled. The respiratory tract has high infection possibilities, resulting in coughing and secretion of mucus, leading to serious cases of chronic bronchitis or asthma.


The best Lewis Structure would be where the two oxygen atoms have double bonds to make their formal charges zero and the formal charge of Sulfur.

The electron geometry of Sulfur Dioxide is a trigonal planar shape where the bond angle of the three pairs of electrons is lined at 120 degrees.

Final Thoughts

Like other compounds, understanding and drawing the Lewis Structure will help you fully grasp how the molecular geometry, properties, and other components came to be. With SO2 Lewis Structure, the central atom is the central sulfur atom because of the higher valence of the sulfur atom than the oxygen atom. 

The SO2 Lewis Structure provides the best explanation of how the sulfuric acid(1) transformed into such after dissecting the bonds of Sulfur and Oxygen. This can be a hazard to one’s health, but this is also a useful compound if you know how to use it properly.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.


  1. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Sulfuric-acid
Best Molecular Gastronomy Kit

What’s the Best Molecular Gastronomy Kit? Reviews & Buying Guide

Science is not just inside the laboratory as you can also do your concoction in the kitchen. Learning how to whip up some ingredients from a science kit can be a very fun and exciting thing to do. 

So, we gathered the best molecular gastronomy kits we can find to help you get started with your experiment in the kitchen.


Molecule-R - Molecular Gastronomy Starter Kit


Spherification Kit [Molecular Gastronomy]


Reverse Spherification Kit

Top 7 Molecular Gastronomy Kits

1. Molecule-R - Molecular Gastronomy Starter Kit

This kit has specialized molecular tools that will allow the user to do molecular gastronomy techniques that can help them create spectacular dishes.

Second is the 50-recipe DVD that provides step-by-step instructions so you can do all the spheres and reproduce foams similar to what Michelin-starred restaurants use. 

Friends and family will enjoy your balsamic vinegar pearls as you turn them into caviars using one reusable syringe included in the Molecular R kit.

The Molecule Cuisine R Evolution kit makes molecular gastronomy easy.



2. Spherification Kit [Molecular Gastronomy]

This is a good choice for those who want to turn their kitchen into a room for artistic culinary composition.

You can be the next master molecular gastronomy expert with this gastronomy starter kit.

The molecular cooking kit also includes a 60cc syringe, 50g Sodium Alginate, 50g Sodium Citrate, and 50g Calcium Chloride.



3. Reverse Spherification Kit

You can start experimenting in your own kitchen with this reverse frozen spherification kit.

This is perfect for beginners who have a passion for creating spherified liquids and other flavorful recipes. This molecular gastronomy starter kit includes an easy-to-follow video course for the user to understand what spherification (1) is. 

Following the instructions would be easy, plus it also has molecular techniques you can use while you use the tools included in the basic kit, like the reverse spherification mold and gelatin sheets to create those flavored pearls.



4. Modernist Cuisine Spherification Kit

You will appreciate the step-by-step instructions provided by Modernist Cuisine Spherification Kit in their hardcover books.

It includes photos plus an explanation of what science occurred during the spherification.

This kit can perfectly perfect the modernist cuisine even with children aged eight years old and above.

The DIY kits include the recipe booklet, gelatin sheets, immersion blender, spherification spoon, and a digital gram scale which are usually not a part of the kit.



5. PREMIUM Molecular Gastronomy Starter Kit

All the tools you need and free technical support assistance would be the first thing that would capture your attention if you check this molecular gastronomy kit.

This would be great for starters since the 250-guide book provides thorough instructions on molecular gastronomy techniques and recipes. 

This is a complete kit with a measuring spoon, silicon mold weighing dishes, and slotted spoon with ingredients such as 50g Sodium Alginate and 50g Calcium Lactate.

Your gluten-free mint caviar beads will impress your family and friends with the help of your Perfect Caviar Maker.



6. Molecular Gastronomy "Made Easy" Starter Kit

These can also be the best molecular gastronomy kits since they ensure complete content and a comprehensive guide.

Food lovers will enjoy this kit as they learn new recipes and gather detailed techniques that you can see used in cooking shows.

You can start using your gel noodle kit and serve delightful chocolate gel spaghetti and impress dinner guests in no time.



7. OFFICIAL Modernist Cuisine Value Pack

A typical modernist cuisine would include soft caviar pearls, which you can learn with this Modernist Cuisine Spherification Kit.

You can transform your kitchen into a modernist pantry by creating caviar from your caviar maker and stainless steel caviar strainer, which is included in the kit.

You will learn modernist cooking in no time with the modernist cuisine molecular gastronomy kit.



Your Guide to Buying

buying guide


The usual concern of the buyers is the price since they can obviously buy the ingredients individually. Find a Molecular Gastronomy Starter Kit that includes ingredients that you can use along with the tools to make sure you are getting your money’s worth.

Easy to Follow 

A molecular gastronomy kit is usually intended for kids. That is why the instructions should be straightforward since this will also mold their weighing skills and comprehension.

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Fun Activities

Simple cooking techniques and a recipe guide that everyone can follow will give the users a fun experience. This is a good bonding experience for families during free time, making it even better to include many recipes in the instruction booklet. 

Extra Tools

Other kits do not provide any tools other than the usual ones that are used, such as a syringe, silicone mold, a gel noodle kit, and one slotted spoon. A weighing scale is important to have the right measurement done.


Yes, molecular gastronomy kits are reliable, but if kids use them, adult supervision is still necessary to avoid unnecessary accidents. Some ingredients are not supposed to be handled by children. Thus, they are not included in the kit.

Yes, a molecular gastronomy kit is safe because ingredients that may cause harm are not included in the molecular gastronomy kit to avoid accidents. There is an instruction booklet and online tutorials provided to ensure that the steps are done correctly.

And the #1 Molecular Gastronomy Kit is...

Our best molecular gastronomy kit is Molecule R – Molecular Gastronomy Starter Kit. This is the perfect gift for a foodie friend or your child interested in molecular gastronomy. The cooking technique provided in their guide, like the chocolate spaghetti and the tasty lemon foam, is very easy to follow, including how to transform liquids.

Also, Molecule R chose ingredients that can be easily obtained, like soy lecithin and calcium lactate, should the user run out of it. Molecular gastronomy is an interesting activity that should be learned properly, and having this kit will surely provide that result.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.

OUR # 1 Recommendation

Molecule-R - Molecular Gastronomy Starter Kit

Best Microscope For Pathologist

What’s the Best Microscope For Pathologists? Ranked & Compared

The work of a pathologist is full of complex responsibilities, especially that this is in line with diagnostics and treatment of a patient. A reliable microscope that can measure correctly and view all categories with no confusion is necessary. 

We searched for compound microscopes with the best features to help you pick out the one that better suits your requirements. Here’s our list of the best microscopes for pathologists. 


OMAX LED Binocular Compound Lab Microscope


AmScope B120C Siedentopf Binocular Compound Microscope


Swift SW380T Compound Lab Microscope

Top 5 Microscopes for Pathologist

1. OMAX LED Binocular Compound Lab Microscope

First of all, the magnification levels provided by this compound microscope are exceptional considering its price.

These are not high-end digital microscopes, but magnifications up to 40x, 80x, 100x, 200x, 800x, 1000x, and 2000x are very clear to the naked eye. 

It has a revolving quadruple nosepiece which can help any user to adjust the size of the specimen. It also featured LED illumination, which enhances the images on the slide.



2. AmScope B120C Siedentopf Binocular Compound Microscope

AmScope is one of the best microscopes in the market today.

It has an achromatic objective lens which gives the magnified images up to five corrections.

It also has LED light, 1.25 NA Abbe condenser, and iris diaphragm to allow users detailed examination and light management to scrutinize microorganisms thoroughly under the microscopes. 

Slides are locked in place, and the double-layer mechanical stage allows the slide to be moved along the X- and Y-axis.



3. Swift SW380T Compound Lab Microscope

This is one of the multi-purpose compound microscopes that enables users to check tiny specimens.

This microscope is perfect for hobbyists, doctors, pathologists, and even students who do research.

Laboratories can also use the advanced features of this microscope. 

You can observe cells tissues even in different interpupillary distances without losing focus since it can be easily adjusted.

This microscope will allow you to understand your subject easily because of its distinct features.



4. Amazon Basics Siedentopf Binocular Compound Microscope

This is actually an impressive compound microscope (1) coming from Amazon, having a mechanical stage and digital camera capability.

These could be the best microscopes in the market because of their many features.

Magnification can go up to 2000, and you can check on cells and specimens up close on this microscope. 

This is suitable for pathologists, students studying pathology, or any medical field. You can consider this a professional microscope that can be used during surgery or by examining body fluids.



5. Gemkolabwell Binocular Microscope

All the tools you need and free technical support assistance would be the first thing that would capture your attention if you check this molecular gastronomy kit.

This would be great for starters since the 250-guide book provides thorough instructions on molecular gastronomy techniques and recipes. 

This is a complete kit with a measuring spoon, silicon mold weighing dishes, and slotted spoon with ingredients such as 50g Sodium Alginate and 50g Calcium Lactate.

Your gluten-free mint caviar beads will impress your family and friends with the help of your Perfect Caviar Maker.



Your Guide to Buying

buying guide


The pricing of these compound microscopes depends on their features and capabilities. The higher the capacity of the microscope, the more costly it becomes. Another factor that affects the price is the materials used to increase magnification and review specimens accordingly. 

Magnification Range & Resolution

The lenses of the microscope and the condenser are the biggest factors that provide the best images that a user can see. Higher quality parts allow pathologists to screen and detect whatever issue on the sample that he is looking at. 

Durability & Warranty

Eyepieces made of quality and advanced materials will last longer than a cheaply-made compound microscope with erroneous measurement. Manufacturers who make sure they provide a reliable microscope to their buyers secure it with a warranty that covers defects that are part of their manufacturing. 

Related Posts:

Fine Focusing Control

A microscope is created to have better viewing of a specimen that is not visible to plain sight. Organs that need to be checked, tissue, and cells that may have a disease are scrutinized under a microscope. Focusing on these is necessary to gather data on different categories. These parts have software that is upgradable which should be something you can search for. 

Light Source & Control

The light in a microscope is crucial to its purpose. The specimen you are looking at specimen slides will only be viewable if the LED illumination has enough luminance. A compound microscope should have features that allow the user to observe the viewing head with clarity.


Pathologists use a compound microscope to observe their magnified objectives. This is the best type of microscope because it has two lenses: the ocular, which is the one closest to the eye, and the objective lens, which is near the object.

Yes, but it’s not something we recommend. A regular microscope has limitations on what it can feature, and the demands of the responsibility of a pathologist are not simple. They need a scope that has precise measurements and features objective lenses with filters and good focus manageability.

And the Best Microscope For Pathologists Is...

Our number one choice is OMAX LED Binocular Compound Lab Microscope. The achromatic objective lenses and the mechanical stage, which is very functional, made us decide that this product has the best features. This microscope can be used in school, figuring out a disease, checking the tissues of patients, and all other objectives. 

The LED light has the right luminous to show a clear picture with a condenser, enhancing what you see on the monitor. The microscope also features camera compatibility. All these are found on the compound microscope, which is very easy to use.

Thank you for reading this far! I hope that the information provided in this article will be helpful to you.

OUR # 1 Recommendation

OMAX LED Binocular Compound Lab Microscope